01/2013

2013-01

OBSAH / CONTENTS

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Michal HABAJ: Renesančná Európa na sever od Álp a Herodotos / Renaissance Europe North of the Alps and Herodotus (pp. 6-19)

Daniel HAAS KIANIČKA: Freiseisenovci z Kremnice ako predmet výskumu dejín rodiny / The Freiseisens of Kremnica as the Subject of Family History Research (pp. 20-34)

Radomír VLČEK: Pavel Treťjakov a vznik jeho galerie výtvarných umění. Ke genezi ruského uměnovědného mecenátu / Pavel Tretyakov and the Establishment of His Art Gallery. On the Genesis of the Russian Art Historical Patronage (pp. 35-51)

Diskusie, polemiky / Discussions, Polemics

Josep María BARNADAS: O náležitom mieste štúdia dejín Cirkvi / On the Proper Place for the Study of the Church History (pp. 52-66)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations

Evagrius z Pontu : Myšlienky / Evagrius of Pontus : Sentences (pp. 67-93)

Rozhovory / Interviews

Rozhovor s profesorom Andrzejom Chwalbom: „Neexistuje objektívna historiografia“ (Jagielonská univerzita v Krakove) / “There Is No Impartial Historiography.” Interview with Professor Andrzej Chwalba (pp. 94-99)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 100-116)

Anotácie, nové knihy /Annotations, New books (pp. 117-141)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 142-164)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 165-168) 


 ABSTRACTS

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 6-19 © Verbum 2013

Michal HABAJ: Renesančná Európa na sever od Álp a Herodotos / Renaissance Europe North of the Alps and Herodotus

KEYWORDS: Herodotus, reception, renaissance, scholarship, Greek studies
ABSTRACT: The submitted study deals with the reception of Herodotus in the time of Renaissance. It concentrates on humanistic world outside the Italy. It analyses two important questions. The first is Herodotus‘ veracity. It seeks to show how the humanists had accepted Herodotus. Did they consider him to had been a faithful source of information, or just a storyteller? The second problem the study deals with is the question, what was the mechanism which enabled a pagan author as Herodotus to having been reciped in the Christian Europe.
The study showed that there had been a wide interest for Herodotus‘ work outside the Italy during Renaissance. He was reciped not only by historiographers but also by representants of other branches of contemporary science. He had been included in the discourse of ethnography, geography as well as medicine or the theory of literature.
In the context of Herodotus‘ reception, the study dealt with two important questions. First, with the attitudes towards Herodotus‘ veracity in the renaissance culture. As had been showed on the examples from some countries, his veracity had been firstly doubted, especially in the generation of Erasmus, because of its dependence on classical tradition. But the next generations of David Chytraeus or Henri Estienne accepted Herodotus as faithful source for Greek history. The explanation for this change can be seen in the educational process, because the new generation gained its original attitude towards Greek antiquity thanks to the studium of Greek language.
The next important question related to the position of Herodotus as pagan historian in the culture profusely based on the Christianity. We showed that his reception in this respect depended on the general attitude towards Greek. The acceptance of Greek had been the key to the successful reception of Herodotus. Melanchton and later Chytraeus used Herodotus for the completation of Bible. For these humanist Herodotus did not stand in contrast with Bible at all. On the contrary, they accepted his history as the continuation of Bible.
One more interesting result of our research relates to the attitude of Arnaldo Momigliano towards the question about Herodotus‘ veracity. According to Momigliano the main turning point in accepting Herodotus as a truthful author in the Renaissance is related to the overseas discoveries. Europeans met that time unusual habits and customs. What had been only with difficulty accepted before this event, became more believable. The discoveries showed to Europeans diversity, having made Herodotus‘ speech by the way more plausible. This argument of Momigliano was subsequently accepted by other researchers. But we can only partly agree with it. Undoubtedly there has been a strong influence of new discoveries but this influence had surely not been the most important argument for changing a position toward Herodotus. We have couple of reasons for this claim. The Europeans had been in contact with different cultures already before overseas discoveries. No one of influentials humanists used this argument in the apology of Herodotus. Some humanists even ignored or did not know about these discoveries. Therefore we find this argument as repriced and we see the above mentioned reasons as more important in the whole change.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 20-34 © Verbum 2013
Daniel HAAS KIANIČKA: Freiseisenovci z Kremnice ako predmet výskumu dejín rodiny / The Freiseisens of Kremnica as the Subject of Family History Research

KEYWORDS: early modern period, Hungary, Slovakia, family history research, historic demography, social history
ABSTRACT: In the early modern period, the family constituted one of the basic pillars of society. It satisfied emotional, social, as well as economic needs of individual family members. The family of Freiseisens had lived in Kremnica since the late 16th century. Its male members entered into marriage a little older than the Hungarian average. It was a consequence of their occupational specialization and family richness. As a result, these men could afford to look for women of an appropriate social status for a longer period of time. In the family, it was common to enter into the second and further marriages too. Both men and women did so because of financial security, care for their children, and running their households. Similarly to today, family life in the early modern period was full of diverse intra-family relations. It was not only social pressure that impelled people to mutual manifestations of respect and affection, but sincere emotions as well.
In the early modern period, the family constituted a fundamental social and economic unit of society. Besides family members, the household, that was understood more broadly than today, also included various servants and craftsmen. In that time marriage as the core of the family was indissoluble and bound to the property. It was the only way to get legitimate offspring, as well as the only alternative of legal sexuality.
The aim of the paper was to explore the marriage age of the members of the family of Freiseisens of Kremnica, as well as the rate of entry into the second and further marriages. Another objective was to describe some of the intra-family relationships.
Due to the lack of sources, it was possible to determine the age of entry into the first marriage by male members of the family in the period from the late 16th to the late 18th century only in 24 Freiseisens. The age of nine of them is approximate, while the age of the others is exact. According to calculations, the marriage age in this family was circa 26.5 years. It was a little more than the Hungarian average. The causes of this phenomenon can be found in the fact that the family came from Austria and its members sought to educationally specialize and occupationally establish themselves before marriage. And since the Freiseisens belonged to well-off families, they could afford to look for suitable economically well situated partners of an appropriate social status, and through marriage policy expand their sphere of influence. A higher age of entry into marriage had also impact on some demographic parameters. Indeed, the marriage delayed two or three years meant to conceive one or two children fewer.
As for entering the second, third or fourth marriage, this phenomenon occurred in the family quite commonly. From the total of 24 family members, whose age of entry into the first marriage we sought to determine, it was directly confirmed that five members entered two marriages, one member entered three marriages and one member four marriages. This represents a nearly 30% share of two or more marriages in the lives of the family members. In that time this was considered a natural phenomenon. Men and women got married repeatedly mainly for care for their children, running their households, as well as financial security.
Thanks to the family correspondence of the Freiseisens, we can also take a look at their family relationships. Particular family members manifested their mutual respect or at least tolerance. Although they were impelled to do so by social pressure, many relationships had certainly sincere character. The probe into the history of the family of Freiseisens of Kremnica showed that the existence of people in the early modern period had not been affected only by “great” events, but also, in a significant way, by their family lives. Decisions of the people had not been influenced only by social pressure, but also by their personal motives and their status in the family and household.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 35-51 © Verbum 2013
Radomír VLČEK: Pavel Treťjakov a vznik jeho galerie výtvarných umění. Ke genezi ruského uměnovědného mecenátu / Pavel Tretyakov and the Establishment of His Art Gallery. On the Genesis of the Russian Art Historical Patronage

KEYWORDS: Russia, Russian history, 19th century, fine arts, values in art, Pavel Tretyakov
ABSTRACT: In the Czech and Slovak, as well as in other foreign literature, there are not many works dealing in greater detail with the history of the Russian art historical patronage. It is only in the Russian environment where several interesting publications on this topic have been published within the last few years. They concentrated, however, on the Russian art historical patronage from the art historical and sociological point of view. The goal of the present paper, therefore, is to analyze Russian art historical patronage from historical point of view as well as in the context of historical events. What is primary is the historical rather than art historical perspective. The aim of the paper is to discuss the genesis and development of the Russian art historical patronage. Another objective is by way of the example of one of the most significant patrons and art collectors of the second half of the 19th century, a rich Moscow merchant Pavel Tretyakov, to show why and how was the patronage carried out and what benefits it brought to the Russian society (in this particular case the establishment of the art gallery accessible to broader public).
In the second half of the 19th century, the Russian society was undergoing rapid development. The latter was fuelled by significant changes launched by Emperor Alexander II shortly after the lost Crimean War (1853 – 1856). In defiance of the generally accepted clichés that in this period Russia was remaining a backward country, the changes resulted in the development of Russian industry and trade, the business flourished and in the cities a new modern Russian intelligentsia arose. This modern intelligentsia were characterized by Russian nationalism and by the determination to do anything to make Russia exceptional. This involved their patronage and support of Russian artists and their works accentuating the Russian society. One of the most significant Russian patrons of the second half of the 19th century was a rich Moscow merchant Pavel M. Tretyakov. The paper deals with his life story and transformations of his interest in arts. It zeroes in on his accumulation of available funds for those fine arts which expressed some Russian peculiarities. In this regard, Tretyakov focused especially on the portraits of important personalities of the Russian past and present. Tretyakov’s effort to surround himself with such pictures soon developed into his determination to make them accessible for broader public and thus allow their perception by those who could not afford to buy such pictures. The paper applies a historical rather than art historical view. Therefore, it primarily draws attention to historical circumstances that made the Russian art historical patronage of the Tretyakov’s type possible.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 52-66 © Verbum 2013
Josep María BARNADAS: O náležitom mieste štúdia dejín Cirkvi / On the Proper Place for the Study of the Church History

KEYWORDS: historical research, Church history, Christianity, methodology, Latin America, Bolivia
ABSTRACT: With his analysis based on the view of the faithful, the author of the paper analyses the issue of the competentness of the study of the Church history. He answers the question to what extent the ecclesiastical history is a theological discipline, where is the place of the priests and laymen in its study, where is the place of the faithful and unbelievers in this matter, etc. The author also evaluates current modern trends in the historical research, as well as the influence of laicization and secularization of life on historians and their thinking. Territorially, he mainly pursues the research in the countries of Latin America and South America. Special attention is paid to theological events in his home country – in Bolivia.
It seems that what started with Hubert Jedin as a talk about the theologicity of the study of the Church history, today ends up with the establishment of the struggle for dominance between the confessional and the non-confessional or even with breaking the study away from the faith, i.e. with the struggle between the faithful historiography and laicist historiography (virtually atheist historiography). In reality, it is necessary to insist upon the fact that it is only a case of a sectorial aspect of the struggle for the absolute dominance of growing laicism over the right to the social presence of Christians as such. With the passage of nearly fifty years, it is now much harder to defend the position of the ecclesiastical extra-theological historiography, as the new configuration of the environment and its players has radicalized the terms. It is time to understand that currently the real debate does not primarily lie in whether the atheists, agnostics or members of other religions or denominations may also deal with the study of the historical phenomenon of Christianity. The debate lies in whether the confessional or the faithful approach in general will be granted the same scientific legitimacy as approaches opposite to it. It seems that the faithful are not allowed to surrender the place that belongs to them. Especially, they are not allowed to disguise the perfidious cowardice with the terms like “a progressive view of faith” or other, no less credible terms, because the place that belongs to them is absolutely the proper place for the study of the Church history.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 67-93 © Verbum 2013
Evagrius z Pontu : Myšlienky / Evagrius of Pontus : Sentences

KEYWORDS: antiquity, Christianity, Evagrius of Pontus, Rufinus of Aquileia, monastery, monks, Egypt
ABSTRACT: Evagrius of Pontus (Evagrius Ponticus, around 346 – 399) was a monk of Egyptian desert and a gifted author of spiritual literature. In large monastic centres of Nitria and Kellia, he was primarily formed by two contemporary greats of ascetic life: priest Macarius of Alexandria and monk Macarius of Egypt. Thus Evagrius gained experiences that later he could pass to younger hermits. The thoughts of Evagrius became a source for literarily active John Cassian, Palladius, Maximus the Confessor or Dorotheus of Gaza. By bringing adapted ancient philosophy and lately assimilated Christian doctrine into the monastic system of education, he became a founder of “the monastic pedagogy of occupation”. For translation of the text of the Sentences (Sententiae ad monachos, Sententiae ad virginem) we used the Latin translation by Rufinus of Aquileia. In certain regards, the material resembles monastic rules of a newly established community.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 94-99 © Verbum 2013
Rozhovor s profesorom Andrzejom Chwalbom: „Neexistuje objektívna historiografia“ (Jagielonská univerzita v Krakove) / “There Is No Impartial Historiography.” Interview with Professor Andrzej Chwalba

ABSTRACT: Prof. Andrzej Chwalba, historian and essay writer, professor of Jagielonian University (UJ) in Krakow is one of most prominent experts in the history of Poland in 19th and 20th century. The native of Czestochowa completed Master‘s degree of history at UJ in Krakow in 1972. After teaching experience devoted doctorate, graduating it in 1982 and eight years later he qualified for associate professor. In 2001 he was appointed full professor. Professor Chwalba, in his work devoted firstly manifestation of piety and religious practice of Polish Socialists to the World War I: Sacrum i rewolucja : socjaliści polscy wobec praktyk i symboli religijnych (1870 – 1918). Through the work about Józef Pilsudzki, a Polish-Russian relations at the turn of the 19th and 20 century A. Chwalba got to the issue of Resistance for Democracy, which was a part of himself through various activities. The last decade has frequently appeared as an author and co-author of synthetic work on the history of Poland and Jagielonian University. In addition to other work of the historian is also the author of two volumes on the history of Krakow in the 20th century. For slovaks readers name Andrzej Chwalba known for its Czech edition Polsko 1989 – 2008. Dějiny současnosti, which is interesting contexts and for
our history.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 100-116 © Verbum 2013
Recenzie / Reviews

BARRETT, Anthony A. (ed.). Životy císařů. Přeložili Markéta Bauerová a Ivan Prchlík. Praha : Academia, 2012, 450 s. ISBN 978-80-200-2082-6 (Tomáš Klokner)
HUIZINGA, Johan. Kultúra Nizozemska v 17. storočí. Preklad, doslov a vysvetlivky Adam Bžoch. Bratislava : Vydavateľstvo Európa, 2011, 112 s. [Edícia Tulipán] ISBN 978-80-89111-78-7 (Juraj Dvorský)
HOLOŠOVÁ, Alžbeta - ŽAŽOVÁ, Henrieta. Dejiny observatória na Trnavskej univerzite 1756 – 1785. Trnava : Trnavská univerzita v Trnave, Ústav dejín Trnavskej univerzity, 2012, 117 s. + 71 obr. príloh. ISBN 978-80-8082-566-9 (Jaroslav Nemeš)
Z dejín mesta Prešova a jeho obyvateľov : osobnosti, udalosti, pamiatky. Ed. Marcela Domenová. Prešov : Štátna vedecká knižnica v Prešove, 2012. 144 s. ISBN 978-80-85734-98-0 (Mariana Kosmačová)
Veľká doba v malom priestore. Zlomové zmeny v mestách stredoeurópskeho priestoru a ich dôsledky (1918 – 1929). Große Zeit im kleinen Raum. Umbrüche in den Städten des mitteleuropäischen Raumes und deren Wirkungen (1918 – 1929). Eds. Peter Švorc - Harald Heppner. Prešov : Universum, 2012, 408 s. ISBN 978-80-89046-74-4 (Peter Zmátlo)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 117-141 © Verbum 2013
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 142-164 © Verbum 2013
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp. 165-168 © Verbum 2013
Internetové odkazy / Web links

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