Kultúrne dejiny 02/2020 / Cultural History 02/2020
V novembri 2020 vyšlo nové číslo časopisu Kutlúrne dejiny / In November 2020 was published a new issue of magazine Cultural History
Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles
KEYWORDS: Church of St. George, Kostoľany pod Tribečom, Nitra, St. Clement, Ss. Constantine-Cyril and Methodius, 9th – 11th Century
ABSTRACT: In the latter half of the 9th century, Nitra can be perceived as a centre that not only emitted power but also a significant cultural and spiritual energy to both its immediate and distant surroundings. This would create unique local spiritual and cultural centres that would survive far beyond the significance of their region thanks to their survival. One of them is still little-known Church of St. George in Kostoľany pod Tribečom. The paper deals with the period of origin and beginnings of the Church of St. George in the context of activities and influence of the Cyrillo-Methodian mission in the territory of the Principality of Nitra and the following period. It particularly reflects recent research, which has significantly raised other issues and problems around the church’s or donor’s era, and incorporates them into the wider cultural-historical context of the period. Due to its location near the centre of the Principality of Nitra, Kostoľany pod Tribečom should undoubtedly fulfil an important representative and “enlightenment” function in the sense of advancing Christian ideology. Reconsidering the current patrocinium of St. George offers a hypothesis of the original consecration of the church to St. Clement, whose cult in the territory of Great Moravia established and expanded significantly after the remains of the martyr were transferred to Rome by Constantine and Methodius. It also points out the degree of participation of the power and intellectual elites of the Principality of Nitra (and following the demise of Great Moravia) in the emergence of church buildings and ideological wall painting programmes.
KEYWORDS: Women, education, schools, courses, burghers, Košice
ABSTRACT: Discussions on girls’ education, which took place in society during the 19th century, did not address the method of education itself, but the question of whether girls would ever need to receive a higher education than that provided by national (elementary) schools. Despite different prejudices and stereotypical ideas, various forms of teaching were gradually made available to them. There was a major breakthrough in higher education opportunities for girls and women in the second half of the 19th century. Gradually, new opportunities were opened for them at several types of educational institutions, which included private and monastic girls’ educational institutions, burgher’s schools, teacher training institutes, higher girls’ schools, business courses and courses for the education of midwives, and girls’ grammar schools from the end of the 19th century (or external study at boys’ grammar schools and vocational schools). Individual types of schools mainly originated in larger cities, including Košice. In this city, suitable conditions for the establishment of these institutions were created as Košice was the administrative, cultural, economic, political and educational centre of the north-eastern region of Hungary. The burghers also played an important role. They were interested in giving girls and women the opportunity to reach a higher educational level to help them find employment (e.g. in lower office positions, postal and rail services, educational system or health service). The aim of this study is to present the possibilities of education of girls and women in Košice in 1867 – 1918. The thesis deals with individual schools and courses according to their specialization, and it also provides information on the number of pupils and subjects. In the researched period there were several types of schools in Košice, where the number of students was gradually increasing. They came not only from Košice but also from the surrounding areas.
KEYWORDS: People’s Republic of Poland, Władysław Gomułka, cultural policy, mass culture, patterns from Western culture
ABSTRACT: This article is an analysis of the situation that emerged in Poland in 1956, with the end of Stalinism, which conditioned the presence of a single model of culture and consciously cut off Polish society from the phenomena characteristic of the cultural and moral reality of the Western world. The late adaptation of mass culture to Polish conditions abounded in exceptional phenomena, which were, on the one hand, an expression of a certain social structure and tradition, and on the other, attempts by the communist party authorities to control it, trying in various ways to counteract its overly open infiltration, which was followed by certain ideological premises, referring to Marxism-Leninism. Based on archives, newspapers, journalists’ works, memoirs, literary works, as well as on literature on the subject, the text brings the reader closer to how the penetration of mass culture, Western cultural patterns in general, was described and evaluated by central party authorities. The text does not intend to fully present the issue, which is too elaborated and complex. Rather, I prefer to focus readers’ attention on linking points, in order to present some concrete examples of changes, to indicate new behaviour in the cultural and political space and the chronology of events; hence the arrangement of the text, which is issue-chronological. Hence the analysis of how mass culture was assessed before 1956, how it was defined during the “thaw”, what alternatives were sought, how the party reacted and how it changed the functioning patterns of Polish society. The idea of the linking points results from the fact that the infiltration of mass culture in Polish society is still very rarely taken into account. Therefore, the predominant intention of this article is to initiate comparative research, which could show, based on examples from individual countries under the influence of the Soviet Union, whether and how important mass culture was for breaking the ideological monopoly of the communist parties.
KEYWORDS: Benedictines, monastery, Emaus Monastery in Prague, Lubiń, Klemens Dąbrowski OSB, Arnošt Vykoukal OSB
ABSTRACT: As a consequence of the nineteenth-century dissolution of religious orders, no male Benedictine monastery survived in Poland. Renewal of religious life was undertaken by Father Klemens Dąbrowski (1875 – 1953), from 1909 a monk of the Emaus Monastery in Prague. He found a depth of spiritual life there. During the Great War he was involved in helping Polish refugees. After its conclusion, he decided to return to Poland. In the years 1919 – 1923 he attempted to create a Polish foundation based on the monastery in Prague (at the Holy Cross and in Tomaszów Mazowiecki). Left without help, he did not realize his plans there. His prior, Father Arnošt Vykoukal, offered help, but he did not have the resources to effectively support the Polish monk. The plan of Father Dąbrowski was finally implemented in 1924 when the monastery in Lubiń was established. Financial and personal support was sent there. For these reasons, it is difficult to imagine the revival of Polish male monasteries without the abbey in Prague.
Father Dąbrowski described his struggle to create the first Polish monastery after the dissolution period in interesting chronicles. The following study also used materials from the religious archives in Prague, Zevenkerken (Belgium), Kęty, Tyniec, Lubiń, Krzeszów, Częstochowa, Poznań, and state archives in Warsaw, Wrocław, Kraków, London.
Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations
KEYWORDS: Robert Grosseteste, light, corporeity, form, metaphysic
ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to present the metaphysic of light postulated by the medieval author, bishop of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, in the well-known treatise entitled De luce seu de inchoatione formarum. In this excellent work Robert Grosseteste created the unique concept of light understood as the first corporeal form that gives to matter dimension and movement. His teaching is based on Aristotle terminology but the content is far from being Aristotelian. The main difference between the philosophy of Aristotle and Robert Grosseteste is seen in their comprehension of matter. It is because the matter for Robert Grosseteste ceases to be the pure potency as it was in the teaching of Aristotle. Matter in Grosseteste’s view contains some minimal reality. So matter also becomes a simple substance. The role of form is then to accomplish, actualize and perfect matter. In the presented teaching of Robert Grosseteste it remains essential to understand that light for Grosseteste is not the simple physical light as we experience in our lives. According to the bishop of Lincoln, light becomes the intermediate form between the first matter and the concrete matters of the four elements. So light comes to be a spiritual, simple substance. In addition, light exists at the beginning of the world as well. At the moment of the creation of the world, the point of light started to diffuse itself in all directions and by generating the spheres of light, it constructed all the cosmos.
„Mal som šťastie na osobnosti nemeckej a rakúskej historickej vedy, ktoré mi veľkoryso otvárali dvere do ich vedeckovýskumného prostredia.“ Rozhovor s historikom Petrom Švorcom / „I was fortunate to have met the personalities of German and Austrian historical science who generously opened the door of their scientific research.“ Interview with historian Peter Švorc
SMOROŇ, Matúš, Rod Aba I. Šľachtici z Drienova. Uhorská šľachta v období stredoveku III. Veda a výskum Uhorského kráľovstva v stredoveku. (Adam Čuchor) (p. 313)
MALINIAK, Pavol, Čabradské panstvo v stredoveku (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 316)
BIZOŇOVÁ, Monika – OLEJNÍK, Vladimír, Duchovné a kultúrne dedičstvo Spišskej Kapituly II. Jezuitské gymnázium a Učiteľský ústav (Patrik Griger) (p. 318)
NOVOTNÁ, Mária (zost.), Lőcse 1918 – Levoča 1919 (Patrik Griger) (p. 321)
NORWICH, John Julius, Příběhy velkých měst (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 325)
BYSTRICKÝ, Peter – HUDÁČEK, Pavol a kol., Gestá, symboly, ceremónie a rituály v stredoveku (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 326)
HOMOĽA, Tomáš, Na vzostupe moci (Zahraničná politika Mateja Korvína v stredoeurópskom priestore v rokoch 1458 – 1471) (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 327)
DUCHOŇOVÁ, Diana – LENGYELOVÁ, Tünde a kol., Historik na cestách. Jubileum Viliama Čičaja (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 328)
MELICHÁREK, Maroš, Národy juhovýchodnej Európy v siločiarach medzinárodnej politiky 1856 – 1913 (Adam Čuchor) (p. 329)
WEINBERGEROVÁ, Mária – MARTINICKÝ, Miroslav (eds.), Historické výročia v roku 2018 : Zborník z medzinárodnej konferencie a katalóg z výstavy archívnych dokumentov, ktoré sa konali 26. septembra 2018 v Bytči (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 331)
OLEXÁK, P. a kol., Florián Tománek. Život a pôsobenie katolíckeho kňaza, politika a publicistu (Stanislav Žlnay) (p. 332)
MRVA, Ivan – MULÍK, Peter, Rok 1918 a Slováci (Adam Čuchor) (p. 334)
BAKA, Igor, Slovenská armáda vo vojne proti Sovietskemu zväzu a slovensko-nemecké vzťahy (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 335)
TURÓCI, Martin – KORDOŠ, Jozef (eds.), BEL, Matej, Tekovská stolica (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 336)
VITANOVSKÁ-HRÚZOVÁ, Nadežda (zost.), Slovenské Pravno vo svetle nových poznatkov (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 337)
LIPOVSKI, Radek, Topografie obcí rakouského Slezska se zohledněním správních reforem v letech 1846 – 1855 (na podkladě konskripcí z let 1846 a 1850/51) (Ján Golian) (p. 339)
Acta Historica Neosoliensia, 2019, roč. 22, vol. 1 a 2. Banská Bystrica : Belianum (Patrik Griger) (p. 340)
Správa z workshopu História zločinu a trestu. Problémy výskumu, teórie a metodológie, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovenské múzeum ochrany prírody a jaskyniarstva, 2. a 3. septembra 2020, Slovenská republika. (p. 342)
Bitka na Bielej hore na internete/Battle of White Mountain (Bílá hora) on the Internet (p. 344)
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