Kultúrne dejiny 1/2020 / Cultural History 1/2020
V máji 2020 vyšlo nové číslo časopisu Kutlúrne dejiny / In May 2020 was published a new issue of magazine Cultural History
Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles
KEYWORDS: aesthetics, aesthetic education, compendium, Upper Hungary, Tobias Gottfried Schröer
ABSTRACT: Tobias Gottfried Schröer (1791 – 1850) has long been neglected by Slovak scientists studying the history of aesthetic thinking in the territory of former Upper Hungary (modern day Slovakia). All his life, he worked in Prešporok (modern day Bratislava) and contributed numerous writings on politics, arts history, aesthetics, etc.; most of them were published outside Hungary, usually under a pseudonym.
While working at the Evangelical Senior Girls’ School, Schröer aimed to implement his educational ideas through achieving constant live contact with the arts (especially literature and music) and through play. He offers these ideas, together with the basics of aesthetic theory, history and theories of art types in an extensive work Weihgeschenk für deutsche Jungfrauen in Briefen an Selma über hohere Bildung von Ch. Oeser (1838). The textbook dealing with the issues of education of women’s youth (on the whole its 26 editions) was extremely popular in German speaking countries until first decades of the 20th century.
His piece Isagoge in eruditionem aestheticam (1842) is one of the two aesthetics handbooks known to date that were published on our territory in the 19th century. The compendium was written directly for the students of Prešporok Evangelical Lyceum, which is stated in its subtitle. The goal of the essay is to discuss Schröer’s aesthetic compendium through preliminary comparisons as well as through presenting a selection from the Latin aesthetics compendium, placed at the end of the present study. Tobias Gottfried Schröer, was definitely a person who deserves further professional analytical reflection and critical editions of his most important works.
KEYWORDS: Societies, Czechoslovakia 1918 – 1938, Czech-Russian Union, Czech-Russian mutuality, Russian emigration to Czechoslovakia, T. G. Masaryk
ABSTRACT: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian emigrants from the former Russian Empire formed an important part of the ethnically diverse society of interwar Czechoslovakia. They were mostly compelled to leave their homeland due to the major political changes that took place in Russia after the Bolshevik rise to power, Czechoslovakia becoming one of their most prominent destinations. The emigrant communities were, to an extent, closed up to the majority society, primarily because there was an expectation of the whole affair being short and temporary. Only some of them were willing to familiarize themselves with Czech culture and whereabouts and to spread awareness of Russian science and culture. One way or another, there was an ample amount of fellowships founded by the emigrants to promote Russian culture, science and art. One of the few fellowships to do so in order to open up to Czech environment and to introduce its members to the Czech cultural and scientific sphere was the Czecho-Russian Unity Association. It was founded as one of the earliest fellowships of its kind, tracing its origins back to April 1919. Its unique nature resided in the fact that it invited and accepted influential personas of Czechoslovak political and intellectual life as its members. Many of those put forth a considerable effort to maintain a financial support for further propagation of the idea of Czecho-Russian solidarity in both communities, as well as for the Association itself. The Czech-Russian Unity Association was also supported by leading Czechoslovak political institutions. For example, its library, first referred to as “Russian” and later, after a further thematic expansion of its book collection, as “Slavic”, was financed by subsidies from a fund of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The paper proposes an analytic insight into the activity of the Russian emigrant fellowships in the interwar Czechoslovakia. At the same time, it is a contribution to the history of Czech-Russian relationships based on the definition of the particular activity of the fellowships. So far, historiography has been largely silent about this phenomenon.
KEYWORDS: collective remembering, narratives, Slovakia, the Greek Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church
ABSTRACT: The paper presents the analysis of the narratives which were obtained by means of the ethnographic research in a village in eastern Slovakia, inhabited by Greek Catholics and Orthodox Christians. We consider accounts of the local conflicts resulting from the alterations of government policy towards the Greek Catholic Church in the second half of the twentieth century. We identified the narrative templates employed by people of the two confessions in their stories: (1) the story line stressing unity and division of the community, used by both Orthodox Christians and Greek Catholics; and (2) the story line emphasizing the suffering and the final satisfaction of the Greek Catholics. We concluded that narrators make use of these templates in accordance with their motivations, to pursue various goals on particular occasions of meaning-making. Our results highlight the advantages of ethnographic research in the investigation of collective remembering in small communities.
KEYWORDS: wedding custom, ritual, anadem, removing of the anadem, bonnet
ABSTRACT: The capping ceremony is a special wedding ritual in Slovak folklore, when the bride becomes an adult woman and a wife. The capping ceremony had a great importance and was one of the customs which belonged to the marriage in the traditional society. By definition, it declared the woman’s new status – the transition from the status of a maiden (single girl) to being married. By putting on a bonnet, the woman symbolically entered the community of married women and from that moment onwards, she was in charge of her duties as a wife. That was a model in a traditional society. At present, the removing of the anadem and the capping ceremony is the most popular part of the wedding and it is up to the bride whether it will be a part of the wedding or not. There are many different forms of this ritual, with varied scenarios, and it is evident that the capping ceremony has lasted through time into the modern era. However, for a proper interpretation of the capping ceremony and removing of the anadem at present, it is important to understand its nature and history.
Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations
KEYWORDS: Louis Cazamian, humor, love, transposition, comic
ABSTRACT:ABSTRACT: Louise Cazamian’s study deals with the validity of the commonly ac- cepted assumption that there is an essential relation between humour and kindness. Cazamian pursues this question on the background of his concept of the mechanism of humour as a particular type of comic language. He shows that this mechanism consists in apparent suspension of the natural reaction to reality and its transposition into the unnatural response. Nevertheless, such an unnatural response suggests the natural reaction as well. This confluence of various types of different or even con- tradictory reactions usually results in a tolerant view of reality. However Cazamian emphasizes that despite of the fact that this usual tolerant view is close to kindness, there is not necessarily relation between humour and kindness. On the contrary, there is a lot of cases of insensitive or even cruel humour. Further, Cazamian high- lights that the kindness of humour is in part a strategy of the humourist, who does not want to be seen as rude, but with respect to the harsh essence of the comic mate- rial in general, the kindness could not be part of humour itself.
„Humanitné vedy sú nesmierne dôležité pre civilizačný a kultúrny rozvoj spoločnosti.“ Rozhovor s docentkou klasickej filológie Dianou Sorić / „Humanities are extremely important for the civilizational and cultural development of society.“ Interview with philologist Diana Sorić (pp. 122-126)
ČECH, Zdirad J. K. – ADÁMEK, Jan N. – ROYT, Jan N. Svatolazarská úcta ve středověkých Čechách (Martin Slepička) (p. 127)
GREENBLATT, Stephen. Tyrant: Shakespeare On Power (Karolína Charvátová) (p. 131)
NEMEC, Miroslav. Od zločinu k trestu. Vývoj stoličného súdnictva na Liptove v 18. storočí (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 135)
HÁJKOVÁ, Dagmar – HORÁK, Pavel – KESSLER, Vojtěch – MICHELA, Miroslav (eds.). Sláva republice! Oficiální svátky a oslavy v meziválečném Československu. (Peter Zmátlo) (p. 137)
HARARI, Yuval Noah. Homo deus, stručná história zajtrajška (Peter Olexák) (p. 141)
GÖRÖZDI, Judit. Dejiny v súčasných maďarských románoch (Adam Bžoch) (p. 144)
LIGOŠ, Milan. Vyučovanie slovenčiny ako materinského jazyka v minulosti, prítomnosti a budúcnosti (Kapitoly z dejín vyučovania slovenčiny s výzvami do budúcnosti) (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 147)
BLAŽEVIĆ, Zrinka – VLAŠIĆ, Anđelko. Carigradska pisma Antuna Vrančića. Hrvatski i engleski prijevod odabranih latinskih pisama. The Istanbul Letters of Antun Vrančić. Croatian and English Translation of Selected Latin Letters. (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 148)
PAPÁČ, Richard. Maleficz. Ako sa súdilo a trestalo v Košiciach v 16. storočí (Miroslav Nemec) (p. 149)
NOVÁK, Ján. Salašníctvo v Karpatoch (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 150)
ROWLAND, William. Štatisticko-topografický opis Oravského komposesorátu so zvláštnym prihliadnutím na jeho lesy (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 151)
OĽŠAVSKÁ, Gabriela: Evanjelici v Prešove v 18. a v prvej polovici 19. storočia (Fragmenty z dejín cirkvi, školstva a osobností) ( Tomáš Tomo) (p. 313)
ŠPROCHA, Branislav – TIŠLIAR, Pavol. 100 rokov obyvateľstva Slovenska : od vzniku Československa po súčasnosť (Ján Golian) (p. 152)
MIČEV, Stanislav a kol. Trnava a SNP. Protifašistický odboj v Trnavskom kraji (Patrik Griger) (p. 154)
MARŤÁK, Michal – ZENTKO, Jozef (eds.). Verný poslaniu. Spomienky na Mons. Jána Zentka (Patrik Griger) (p. 155)
GOLIAN, Ján. Život ľudu detvianskýho. Historicko-demografická a kultúrna sonda do každodenného života na Podpoľaní v dlhom 19. storočí (Patrik Griger) (p. 156)
Magyar Sion, roč. 13 (55), č. 1 a 2. Esztergom (Patrik Griger) (p. 157)
Historica Olomucensia 56, Sborník prací historických XLVI (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 158)
Historia Ecclesiastica, roč. 10, č. 1. (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 159)
Mesto a dejiny, roč. 8, č. 1 a 2 (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 160)
Konštantínove listy, roč. 12, č. 1. (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 161)
Studia Historica Nitriensia, roč. 22, č. 1 a 2. (Patrik Griger) (p. 163)
Správa z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie Karol Kuzmány, Banská Bystrica, Radnica mesta, 3. októbra 2019, Slovenská republika.
Správa z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie Poklesnuté a okrajové spoločenské živly v mestskom prostredí raného novoveku, Bratislava, Primaciálny palác, 3. a 9. októbra 2019, Slovenská republika.
Správa z medzinárodného workshopu Migrace a komunikace, Olomouc, Katedra historie Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci, 21. – 22. novembra 2019, Česká republika.
Správa z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie Pogranicza: miasto, wieś, religijność. Aspekty porównawcze, Lublin, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, Katedra Historii Starożytnej, Średniowiecznej i Bizantyńskiej, 5. marca 2020, Poľská republika.
Ústavy a ústavné zákony na internete / Constitutions and constitutional laws on the Internet (p. 173)
doc. PaedDr. Slávka Kopčáková, PhD.; University of Prešov in Prešov, Faculty of Arts, Institute of Aesthetics and Art Culture, SK-080 01 Prešov; email@example.com
doc. PhDr. Radomír Vlček, CSc.; AV ČR, v. v. i., pobočka Brno, Historický ústav, CZ-602 00 Brno; firstname.lastname@example.org
doc. RNDr. Tatiana Bužeková, PhD.; Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Arts, Department of Ethnology and Museology, SK-811 02 Bratislava; email@example.com
Mgr. Michal Uhrin; Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Arts, Department of Ethnology and Museology, SK-811 02 Bratislava; firstname.lastname@example.org
PhDr. Júlia Marcinová; Žilinská univerzita v Žiline, Fakulta humanitných vied, Katedra mediamatiky a kultúrneho dedičstva, SK-010 26 Žilina; email@example.com