Kultúrne dejiny 1/2018 / Cultural History 1/2018
Vyšlo nové číslo časopisu Kutlúrne dejiny / A new issue of magazine Cultural History was published
Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles
KEYWORDS: Jagiellonians, Holy Roman Empire, dynastic identity, royal weddings
ABSTRACT: The article examines the identity of the Jagiellonian royal princesses on the background of the dynastic policy of the Jagiellonians in the Holy Roman Empire on the verge of the 15th and 16th century. The Jagiellonian princesses became a valuable commodity on the wedding market of this period. The daughters of Polish kings Casimir IV and Sigismund I, and of the Hungarian and Bohemian king Vladislaus benefited from the privilege of possessing both the prestige of the royal dignity and the aura of belonging to a venerable ruling house of Poland and Lithuania. Altogether eight Jagiellonian princesses were married into princely ruling houses of the Holy Roman Empire between 1475 and 1556. This article will examine the identity and dynastic rhetoric of four of them: Hedwig married to Wittelsbachs in Bavaria, Sophie married to Hohenzollern in Brandenburg, Barbara to Wettins in Saxony and Anna to Austrian Habsburgs. The main goal of this article is to show that all of the Jagiellonian Princesses in question developed a double identity. The first one derived from their status as Polish (Hedwig, Sophie, and Barbara), or Hungarian and Bohemian (Anna) royal daughters. The second one, local and acquired, was adopted after their arrival and incorporation to the new court and ruling house.
Jagellonian royal daughters were a desired article on the European dynastic market and on the political scene in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. They possessed both the royal rank and the aura derived from belonging to the traditional ruling family in Poland and Lithuania. They therefore had what was lacking by some traditional princes and dukes such as the Wittelsbachs and Welfs (royal rank), and what was missing in other rulers trying to establish a new dynasty, as in the case of Matthias Corvinus or George of Podebrady (dynastic tradition). This was one of the decisive factors that allowed a high demand for Jagiellonian princesses on the late medieval and early modern European wedding market.
Numerous descendants of the Polish King Casimir IV Jagiello (1447–1492) and his wife Queen Elisabeth of Habsburg (1454–1505) (married in 1454) gave the dynasty a promising prospect of establishing a widespread network of ruling families and expanding its influence far beyond the Polish-Lithuanian state. Under these conditions, they were considered as potential candidates to become the decisive power in the region, capable of meeting the political expectations of Central Europe. After 1490 the Jagiellonians ruled not only in the Polish-Lithuanian Union, but thanks to the oldest son of Casimir, Ladislaus, they also took over the Hungarian and Czech crowns.
Casimir and Elisabeth had 13 children, 11 of whom reached maturity. All five daughters were married to princely houses within the Holy Roman Empire, including some of the most powerful men of contemporary Europe. The same goes for the only daughter of Ladislaus II. Jagiello and Anne of Foix, Anne. In this manner the Jagellonians were married to the most prestigious German and Austrian families, such as the Bavarian Wittelsbachs, the Frankish Hohenzollerns, the Saxon Wettins, and the Austrian Habsburgs. For Krakow, this meant an unprecedented increase in their political influence and introduction on the level of high politics in Central Europe, and especially in the context of the Holy Roman Empire. On the other hand, for most of the German princes, it was a great opportunity to promote their status and glory through marriages with the royal blood of the Jagiellonian princesses.
This article examines the dynastic policy of the Jagiellonians towards the Holy Roman Empire on the examples of selected princesses. The choice of sources and the methodology were influenced by two basic boundaries. In the vast majority, it is based on the German sources, respectively, the sources related to Jagiellonian royal daughters, preserved in the German-speaking countries (today‘s Germany and Austria). It focuses primarily on their correspondence, chronicles and other narrative sources. The comparative nature of the study has forced me to narrow the number of protagonists studied. So the focus lies on four princesses. Hedwig, Barbara, Sophia, and Anna, who gradually married to princely families in the Holy Roman Empire between 1475 and 1521. The examination highlights both similarities and differences on the basis of two primary criteria: 1.) establishment in the new environment (identity), and 2.) contact with home and family (dynasty – family).
The examination of the comparative material connected to Hedwig, Barbara, Sophie and Anna Jagiellon enables to define common features visible in all four cases. This was the creation of a double or mixed, Polish-German (or, in the case of Anna Jagiellon-Habsburg) identity. All four Jagiellonian princesses under study have quickly established themselves in the new environment. The preserved sources provide repeated evidence that they actively participated in local social, cultural and political life. All four were equal partners of their men. In many cases, during the long absence of their spouses, they also performed regent tasks.
KEYWORDS: 19th Century, Catholic Church, Eger Archdiocese, religious life
ABSTRACT: In the middle of the 19th century the piety of the upper and middle class separated sharply from the religious life of peasantry that included many medieval and baroque elements. In the period of the 1848 revolution, the clergy of Eger Archdiocese prepared plans for deepening the piety. According to clergy, the capital problems of the religious life were the breach of the church regulations, the religious fanaticism and the junketing related to the church feasts and pilgrimages.
The above shown sources foreshadow that the picture of religiosity in the middle of the 19th century was not that schematic as it was supposed by the researches so far. Even in the middle of the 19th century the religiosity of the people could not be handled as a unified whole because there were clearly visible contrasts in the judgment and experiencing of religiosity: some people despised it on the basis of the example of the enlightened nobility and intellectuals and accordingly they did not keep the Church regulations at all or just in a small scale, while others, in contrast to this – despite the disapproval of the clergy – further insisted on the traditional religion practice forms. Accordingly, the break line of religious life “slipped down” by the end of the 1840s: the caesura did not extend between the lower and upper layers any more, but between the irreligious part of the people who were in minority yet – which is possible that meant the youth mainly – and the bigger group preserving the old type of religiosity further.
KEYWORDS: Moravia, Silesia, garrison, military history in 19th century, dislocation of an army, garrison cities
ABSTRACT: The presented paper is a material study which purposely focuses on the narrow topic within the broad scope of military history. The aim is to answer the question about a number of troops in selected Moravian and Silesian areas, particularly in the first half of the 19 th century. This is not a marginal topic considering that the army represented an integral and many times also numerous part of the urban society, and naturally influenced the way of life, everydayness as well as economic relations not only in cities but also in rural areas. Despite the fact that many historians are aware of those relations, their works mention local garrison significantly less than we would have expected. The paper analyses the existing approach of researchers to the issue of determining a number of military garrisons in the Czech lands during the 19 th century and furthermore, limits and possibilities of primary sources (especially so called Dislokationstabellen) stored in the Austrian State Archive in Vienna
To establish the exact number of an army in a given year in a particular location is not as easy as it seems. The data about garrisons in literature dealing with urban history appears sporadically and they usually lack any kind of analysis. These data are usually taken from older literature, press or other types of sources, and their accuracy is questionable. The question regarding the number of the army in particular locations was not given a proper scope in Czech historiography. The majority of scholars was either content with varied illustrative data (which usually originated in the last three decades of the 19th century), or with a diversely long list of units active in the chosen city. To this day, there is a missing survey of the continuance of a garrison occupancy as well as their numbers in Bohemia and Moravia. The reason for the non-existence of such a survey is the lack of sources in local archives as well as the absence of research in specialized military archives. The up to day research showed that there are still many interesting sources, which are not often used in Czech research and which could help to answer some research questions. One of such sources are dislocation surveys (Detail-Dislokations-Tabelle), which were not found for the whole 19th century, but at least some decades of the first half of the century helped to give a coherent picture of the organization of the army in Moravia and Silesia, of the web of the most important towns and small towns where garrisons were placed, and it contained define numbers of particular local units. Even though these dislocation surveys are unique, the data should be carefully and critically analysed. Because of their character and structure, only some of these are usable for the acquirement of a number of soldiers in given localities. Another problem is also the stated number of soldiers in each locality. In the case of Moravia and Silesia, only the end of the year surveys survived, therefore there are none from the preceding months. Consequently, there is an absence of knowledge of how the number changed during the period and how the number varied in comparison to the actual quantity of the army. A probe into the vast fond of the general commando in Brno implies that there are important sources for a cognition of structural changes of chosen units during years, which could specify the published data in future. Despite the possible inaccuracy of the numbers with reality, I consider those sources yet the most exact in the relation to the number of Moravian and Silesian garrisons in the first half of the 19th century. The purpose of the study was not the transcription of the dislocation surveys, but to point out the potential of the so far unused sources and to focus chosen indicators in the sources in the analysis. The outcome of the attempt is a table, in which there is a data for each chosen year of the ten most numerous Moravian and Silesian garrison towns, including the exact number of the units. An exact structure for the strongest garrisons (Olomouc, Brno, and Opava) was created for the year 1846 and it also contains their numerical status. Potentially interested scholars can accordingly compile a similar structure of local garrisons, which were not contained in the text.
Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations
KEYWORDS: contemplation, the Cistercian Order, the monastery in Rievaulx, Aelred of Rievaulx, De spirituali amicitia
ABSTRACT: Cistercian monk Aelred of Rievaulx (1110–1167) stands out among the significant representatives of spiritual life in the 12th century. As the son of a Catholic priest, he received an excellent education in the court of king David of Scotland, for whom he worked also in diplomatic services. In 1143, Aelred left the secular life to become a Cistercian monk and then the Abbot of a monastery in Rievaulx, which was a centre of spiritual life in England in that period. He contributed significantly to the success of the region with his vast experience and connections and especially in securing development contracts. His contributions to spiritual development are also indeed meaningful. In the last decade of his life he wrote his greatest work, De spiritali amicitia (The Spiritual Friendship), which centres on the understanding of friendship as an image of God in mankind. The manuscript became Aelred‘s most read piece during the Middle Ages and his ideas are relevant even today.
KEYWORDS: Johannes Gregor Macer Szepsius, Paracelsus, paracelsism, Archidoxae
ABSTRACT: The humanist writer Johannes Gregor Macer Szepsius (cca 1530 – after 1579) came from the small Slovak town of Moldava nad Bodvou. He studied at the Faculty of Arts in Cracow, an important focal point for Central European culture throughout the 16 th century. He also continued working in Cracow after completing his studies, he wrote typical Latin occasional poetry, but he also became interested in alchemy and natural sciences. The circle of his acquaintances included some well-known Cracow intellectuals, especially humanists with alchemistic interests and activities. His greatest contribution to alchemy was his publishing of the Latin translation of Paracelsus‘ tract Archidoxae, issued in Cracow in 1569. Macer also wrote the preface, index and marginal notes to the translation. The paper contains analysis of the preface processed according to a known very significant collection of early alchemistic writings, the Corpus paracelsisticum.
Je treba byť sústavný a mať snahu uzatvárať veci, dokončovať ich.“ Rozhovor s archeológom Bořivojom Nechvátalom / An Interview with an Archaeologist Bořivoj Nechvátal: “One needs to be consistent and strive to resolve things, to complete them.”
Adriána Koželová, Preklad kultúrnych referencií z antiky a kultúrna kompetencia prekladateľa (Erika Juríková) (p. 90)
Tomáš Klokner, Korene modernej alimentácie. Alimentačný program v rímskom svete (1. až 3. storočie n. l.) (Pavol Valachovič) (p. 91)
Vladimír Olejník (ed.), Spišský hrad (Michaela Brezániová) (p. 93)
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Zdeňka Měchurová, Chvála středověké každodennosti (Ondrej Glod) (p. 100)
Danka Majerčíková, Zemianske rody v Žiline (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 102)
Ľuboslav Hromják – Róbert Letz – Pavol Stano, Černová 1907. Odkaz Andreja Hlinku a Černovskej tragédie (Peter Tkáč) (p. 104)
Peter Jašek et alii, 1989. Rok zmeny (Peter Tkáč) (p. 107)
Studia Theologica, 2017, roč. 19, č. 1 (Lenka Mihová) (p. 111)
Christopher Lascelles, Dejiny sveta v skratke (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 117)
Vasil Gluchman (ed.), Etické myslenie minulosti a súčasnosti (ETPP 2017/17). Etika v minulosti – minulosť v etike (Michal Mudroch) (p. 118)
Richard Pipes, Dějiny ruské revoluce (Michal Mudroch) (p. 120)
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Pavol Hudáček, Castrum Salis. Severné pohraničie Uhorska okolo roku 1000 (Ondrej Glod) (p. 125)
Geoff Mortimer, The Origins of the Thirty Years War and the Revolt in Bohemia, 1618 (Daniel Filo) (p. 126)
Marek Rutkowski, Zarządzanie logistyką w Królestwie Polskim ery konstytucyjnej i paskiewiczowskiej. Infrastuktura przydrożna (Michal Habaj) (p. 127)
József Démmel, Panslávi v kaštieli (Kristína Sameková) (p. 128)
Ivan Petranský, Dejiny cirkví a náboženských spoločností na Slovensku v 20. storočí (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 130)
Peter Salner, Židia na Slovensku po roku 1945 (Komunita medzi vierou a realitou) (Peter Tkáč) (p. 131)
Richard Ľupták, Znovuzrodenie Grécko-katolíckej cirkvi v roku 1968 (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 133)
Martin Pekár – Attila Simon – Zuzana Tokárová (eds.), Cena víťazstva. Odvlečenie obyvateľov z územia Československa, Maďarska a Poľska do Sovietskeho zväzu v rokoch 1944 – 1945 (Michal Mudroch) (p. 134)
Tomáš Sitár, Magister Pavol z Kolár a Hontovci z Poiplia (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 136)
Jana Davidová Glogarová – Jaroslav David, Obrazy z cest do země Sovětů. České cestopisy do sovětského Ruska a Sovětského svazu 1917–1968 (Michal Mudroch) (p. 137)
Tomáš Černák – Martin Mocko, Husák v odboji a SNP 1938 – 1945 (Peter Tkáč) (p. 140)
Studia historica Nitriensia, 2017, roč. 21, č. 1 (Peter Tkáč) (p. 142)
Verba Theologica, 2017, roč. 16, č. 2 (Lenka Mihová) (p. 144)
Michal Šesták (ed.), Zborník zo stretnutia priateľov regionálnej histórie (Štefan Smolko) (p. 145)
Kniha 2017 : zborník pre problémy a dejiny knižnej kultúry na Slovensku (Martin Baloga) (p. 146)
Autori/Author(s): Šárka Fleischmannová, Peter Tkáč
Holokaust na internete / Holocaust Websites (p. 153)
Mgr. Dušan Zupka, PhD.; Univerzita Komenského, Filozofická fakulta, Katedra všeobecných dejín, Gondova 2, SK-814 99 Bratislava; email@example.com
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Mgr. Silvia Pasminková; L. Ondrejova 18, SK-971 01 Prievidza
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