2015

02/2015

OBSAH / CONTENTS 2015 02

Spomienka / Memorial 
Za našim spolupracovníkom prof. László Kosztom (1962 – 2015) / In memory of our colleague prof. László Koszta (1962 – 2015) (pp. 176-181)

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles 

Štefan VALÁŠEK: Średniowieczne malowidła ścienne w Ludrovej-Kúte. Ich funkcja i ikonografia / Medieval Wall Paintings in Ludrová-Kút. Its Function and Iconography (pp. 182-195)

Adam BŽOCH: Pojem konverzácie u Erasma Rotterdamského / The Concept of Conversation in Desiderius Erasmus (pp. 196-223)

Vadim ZADUNAJSKI: Kozácke tradície v ukrajinských vojenských jednotkách v rokoch 1917 – 1921 / Cossack Traditions of Ukrainian Military Units, 1917–1921 (pp. 224-242)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations
Filip VANKO: Itinerár župana a palatína Viliama Drugeta v rokoch 1328 – 1342 / The Itinerary of Count and Palatine William Drugeth in 1328–1342 (pp. 243-255)

Ján GOLIAN: Štyristoročná matrika slobodného kráľovského mesta Krupina v kontexte dobových dejín / The Four-Hundred-Year-Old Registry of the Free Royal Town of Krupina in the Context of History (pp. 256-275)

Rozhovory / Interviews
Rozhovor s profesorom Janom Rychlíkom: „Sedavé zamestnanie je údelom historikov“ / Interview with Professor Jan Rychlík: “Sedentary job is the destiny of historians” (pp. 276-284)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 285-310)

Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 311-330)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 331-333)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 334-337)

Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors (pp. 338-339)

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement (p. 340)


ABSTRACTS

 Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 176-181 © Verbum 2015 

Za našim spolupracovníkom prof. László Kosztom (1962 – 2015) / In memory of our colleague prof. László Koszta (1962 – 2015)
ABSTRACT: László Koszta Memorial


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 182-195 © Verbum 2015
Štefan VALÁŠEK: Średniowieczne malowidła ścienne w Ludrovej-Kúte. Ich funkcja i ikonografia / Medieval Wall Paintings in Ludrová-Kút. Its Function and Iconography

Keywords: Slovakia, Region of Liptov, Ludrová-Kút village, history, middle ages, church, murals, education, iconography
ABSTRACT: The work deals with medieval wall paintings in the Church of All Saints in Ludrová-Kút located in the Liptov region. The author explores the design and painting decorations of the church, in particular, using the iconographical analysis. In addition he attempts to understand the function of the medieval wall paintings at the time of its creation and its use in subsequent centuries. In the Church of All Saints are preserved several layers of wall paintings, starting from the second half of the 13th century (consecration crosses) and ending in the 16th century. However, the most important is the large Christological Cycle in the presbytery, dated by the author to the period of 1420–1430. The author does not analyze all picture scenes; rather he focuses more on the ones that are unique, in particular ones regarding iconographic content. The study brings new findings, in particular, in the case of the so-called Eucharistic Triptych on the northern nave of the church (around 1400 A.D.).
The author of the study analyses in detail medieval wall paintings located in All Saints Church in Ludrová-Kút on the basis of the iconographical method. In the introductory part the author refers in brief to the position of the church of All Saints within the Lower Liptov region and its relationship to the city of Ružomberok as well as the Likava castle complex near there. An essential part of the study is the current historiography, relating to either the history of the church or the medieval wall paintings themselves. The oldest written reference to the church of All Saints, and at the same time to the priest Bartholomew who served in it, comes from a record of the inventory of Papal tithes from 1332. Valuable historical written sources are also found in canonical visitations from the 17th to 19th centuries.
The author deals particularly with the murals in the interior of the temple but also does not forget about the exterior paintings on the east wall of the presbytery. A deeper analysis of the image of St. Christopher and an attempt to reconstruct its spiritual role in the past also brings its better understanding. Near the church the two main routes were crossing while linking east with west and north with south. St. Christopher was revered not only as the patron of the pilgrims in the Middle Ages. He was also seen as the one who accompanies the human soul safely to the other world. In the interior of the church, and more specifically on the north wall of the nave is visible a figurative triptych from the period around the year 1400.
The author on the basis of a detailed formal and contextual analysis comes to the conclusion, that in this case it is the so-called Eucharistic Votive Triptych. Although it is not in a good state of preservation, a figure of a woman can be identified on a small fragment of the plaster, most likely the donor of the wall triptych. In the center of the triptych is shown the Man of Sorrows in the ostentatio vulnerum gesture, i.e. showing the wounds on his hands. A secular woman is turning to Christ, probably kneeling and folding her hands in prayer. It is thanks to this female person that the triptych is very rare in the environment of the medieval Liptov region. Her presence in the picture is a testament to the fact that a new form of individual piety – i.e. the devotio moderna, took roots in the peripheral area of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary. The author also analyzes the image of the Virgin of Mercy on the left part of the triptych and the painting of St. John the Baptist in its right part.
All Saints Church is unique due to the wall paintings in its presbytery which are dated to the period around the year 1420. The author admits this painting layer was made later, between 1420 and 1430. Typical features of the paint workshop at the Church of All Saints in Ludrová-Kút are characters with small heads, pulled and bent bodies, dressed in richly pleated dresses, scaled to a great width of bottom margins. Another feature of the Ludrová paintings in the presbytery is the absence of any background in the image fields, weak handling of perspective and no display of architecture. When creating an idea program of wall paintings in the presbytery, its author was inspired by contemporaneous spiritual literature such as Speculum Humanae Salvationis or Biblia Pauperum. The construction of these works is based on the typology, namely Old Testament themes which are a pattern for events in the New Testament. The author also deals extensively with the Christological cycle, located on three sides of the presbytery. This is the most comprehensive Christological cycle within the framework of Slovak medieval wall paintings. Narrative storytelling is shown in thirty-four paintings. Medieval wall paintings in the Church of All Saints in Ludrová-Kút also prove the fact that art of the province reached a high level and contains in itself more or less complex iconographical topics.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 196-223 © Verbum 2015
Adam BŽOCH: Pojem konverzácie u Erasma Rotterdamského / The Concept of Conversation in Desiderius Erasmus

Keywords: history, literature, Renaissance, Erasmus of Rotterdam, conversation, education, language
ABSTRACT: The following text represents a contribution to the cultural history of conversation as a form of non-pragmatic, free and delightful verbal communication between two or more people. Although the concept of “conversation” in this specific cultural sense developed during the Italian Cinquecento and was cultivated mostly during the French 17th century, a very important and influential predecessor of its theory and practice was the European humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam. Especially in his Colloquia familiaria, but also in some other didactic texts on education and decent social behavior, Erasmus formulated basic principles of lovely and often on the first glance “useless” human communication. Colloquia familiaria is a collection of situation-bound dialogues, written in Latin, which brings many samples of every-day communication within almost all social groups and classes in Europe in the early 16th century. The ethical, philosophical and rhetorical dimensions of Erasmus´ dialogues refer to the classical legacy (Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Lucian et. al.), but the every-day aspects of the dialogues afforded opportunity for a broad reception. In the 16th century, the translations of Colloquia familiaria to many vernacular languages helped to form the early modern European consciousness of conviviality based on speaking.
The study constitutes a contribution to the historical research of conversation as a social and cultural practice and focuses on the early modern visions of informal and beautiful social colloquy without a particular aim as they had developed within the dialogical genres of the Western European Renaissance. From the late 15th century the most significant role of creator and propagator of the visions of good convivial verbal communication in Europe had been played by the humanist Desiderius Erasmus (1466/9–1536). By his Latin work “Colloquia familiaria” (1518/33) he created conditions for the spread of examples of civilized, ethical and across the social classes carried out verbal communication for various everyday situations. Erasmus’ work “Colloquia familiaria” the original purpose of which had been to teach pupils to communicate well in Latin, very early – even during the author’s lifetime – began to be translated into vernacular languages and was spread in print throughout Europe. The numerous translations of the work challenged its original purpose and revealed its hidden paradigmatic function consisting in the mediation of examples of adequate communication behaviour. Erasmus’ colloquies cover a wide range of topics: from learning through education and pseudo-education, celebrations, dining, good manners, falsehood, laziness and dishonesty, the status of women in society, love, marriage and motherhood to the reflexion of life experience in old age, various superstitions, the horrors of war, the life of soldiers, but also the role of clergy and religious orders in society, the formalization of faith, monastic life and natural disasters. Despite such thematic diversity of his dialogues it is possible to identify three fundamental principles which Erasmus tried to keep in each of his colloquies: anti-barbarism, egalitarianism and tolerance. While antibarbarism constitutes a programme element of Erasmus’ struggle for education or civilization in terms of the renaissance of ancient heritage (in practice it was the rejection of rude and inadequate social behaviour which was, inter alia, typical for the part of contemporary Catholic clergy as well), the principle of egalitarianism was derived by Erasmus mainly from the early Christian visions of functioning of religious community and from the ideal visions of Christian spirit in general. The principle of tolerance in Erasmus includes the respect for the autonomy of an individual and, at the same time, communication strategies supporting this autonomy, and as such it is the most distinctive manifestation of the author’s humanism. The most significant rhetorical instrument of Erasmian tolerance in the literary habit of satire is a form of praise (declamation) that, in Erasmus’ times, constituted a playful and intellectually appealing way how to present the life phenomena in the manner that would reveal their paradoxicality and, at the same time, allowed to avoid their first-plan moral judgement. – Based on numerous dialogues contained in the “Colloquia familiaria” it can be shown how these three fundamental principles overlap one another and how they remain the constants of Erasmian understanding of informal and beautiful social conversation. It is, however, also possible to show how the Erasmian world that was indeed thematically sufficiently open to his time but nonetheless largely, in terms of communication, closed in itself, did not reflect certain techniques that were crucial for the development of conversation as a social and cultural practice especially in the courtly environment and which in the 16th century, thanks to the manuals of rules of conduct for courtiers (chiefly B. Castiglione), won through as a new standard of informal communication. These techniques include, above all, semantic turn (abrupt change of the subject of conversation) that had found its legitimacy as an important conversational technique at the European courts and from there it spread to the European salons in the 17th century and the following period.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 224-242 © Verbum 2015
Vadim ZADUNAJSKI: Kozácke tradície v ukrajinských vojenských jednotkách v rokoch 1917 – 1921 / Cossack Traditions of Ukrainian Military Units, 1917–1921

Keywords: Ukrainian Cossacks, Kuban Cossacks, Free Cossacks, military traditions, Pavlo Skoropadskiy, Ukrainian Galician Army, military ranks, martial art, weapons
ABSTRACT: The article discusses the use of Cossack traditions in the construction of military formations Ukrainian state formations of 1917–1921. Most full Cossack traditions have been preserved in the Kuban Cossacks, which had Ukrainian roots. Among the main Ukrainian state formations fullest Cossack traditions used in “Ukrainian State” Pavlo Skoropadskiy. Much attention is paid to the Cossack heritage and volunteer formations “Free Cossacks.” Limited programs included Cossack traditions took place in the Ukrainian Galician Army. In today's world without cultural heritage is impossible to imagine a self-sufficient existence of any ethnic education. Ukrainian people are so national heritage traditions of the Cossacks formed in the 16th, 17th and 18th century. Military Cossack traditions have become particularly popular in the period of 1917–1921 military construction. Among these, we note the following:
– The existence of a separate military community with elements of brotherhood and military democracy; – Presence of a specific applied military training, martial arts (possession of knives), special techniques tactics (“lava”, “ventir”, “kroki” and “batovka”); – The use of terminology to refer to the Cossack military ranks (“Cossack”, “Podhorunzhy”, “Horunzhy”, “Sotnik”, “Znachkovy”, “Bunchuzhny”, “Podesaul”, “Esaul”, “Ataman”, “Colonel”, “Hetman”) and units (“hundred”, “hut” and “regiment”); – Preservation of the special attributes, emphasizing belonging to the Cossack community (special hairstyle Cossack uniforms, the use of “mace” and “clubs”); – The existence of the Cossack music and song works; – Authority honored warriors.
The most complete and called traditionally used in the Kuban Cossacks, because its foundation is the Ukrainian Cossacks. In this case, the Kuban Cossacks and failed to create an independent army leadership by countering White Russia, imposed on him by his political and military protectorate. Using Cossack traditions in military units under the «Central Rada» UNR (Ukrainian National Republic) dominated symptoms respective heritage, as well as the mental link between generations. Most successfully tried to use this heritage in the formation of volunteer “Free Cossacks.”
In the Armed Forces of the Ukrainian State Cossack Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskiy heritage was used to a much greater extent than in other Ukrainian military formations of the revolutionary period. An example of this filed Hetman himself, wearing a Cossack uniform and title. Military formations UNR of 1919–1920 used Cossack tradition more fully than during the «Central Rada». This is especially noticeable in the field names of officer ranks, as well as the names of military units. The lowest level of use Cossack heritage seen in Ukrainian formations established in the territory of Western Ukraine. Thus, in the Ukrainian Galician Army partially used terminology Cossack times, as well as the realization of national importance Cossack traditions.
Thus, in the 1917–1921 period Ukrainian armed forces are constantly used separate Cossack tradition that emphasizes the character of Ukrainian revolutionary change and respect for the most vibrant period of national history. Often there has been a formal use of the Ukrainian Cossack heritage.
Finally, the use of the Cossack heritage in the framework of the building of the armed forces by the national Ukrainian authorities in the years 1917–1921, it is necessary to point out the following facts.
Recognition of the overall national importance of the Cossack heritage for all the Ukrainian regions at the idea level, which is indicative of the perception of a wide range of formal speeches as an important base of the military traditions of the Cossack culture of Ukrainians; All public schools have sought to exploit Cossack tradition in creating their armed services, so as to underline its Ukrainian essence. The most distinguished protection received the Cossack traditions of military-practical nature in Kuban Cossack Army – the only preserved Ukrainian Cossack unit from 1917, but even here it failed to fully restore the finishing touches to the military system in the form of national armed forces due to its subordination to the White Guards. Among the armed services of Central Ukraine, the most of Cossack traditions were tried to use in building of the Ukrainian State President Pavlo Skoropadskiy, where there still was a place to rebuild the Cossack class. Among the voluntary units of the revolutionary period was the “Free Cossackship” the closest to the Cossack heritage. The least were used Cossack traditions to create a Ukrainian Sitch Shooters and Ukrainian Galician Army, for which this heritage had only mediated nature.
In such a way during the years 1917–1921 in various Ukrainian armed formations were constantly taking advantage of separate military Cossack traditions, which highlighted the Ukrainian character of revolutionary change, as well as respect for the most significant and military period of the patriotic history. At the same time there has been a perception of Ukrainian heritage by the society as a national tradition on the mental level. It is logical to say that a series of formal expressions and traditions, have become an important basis for the military Cossack culture of Ukrainians. Cossack heritage preservation in any case depended on the relationship of the regions with the Cossack heritage and military-organizational priorities of the state regime, but also on the particular conditions of the military conflict. It is necessary to admit the fact that, in most cases, there has been a formal use of Ukrainian Cossack heritage without adequate analysis of the functionality of the particular Cossack habits.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 243-255 © Verbum 2015
Filip VANKO: Itinerár župana a palatína Viliama Drugeta v rokoch 1328 – 1342 / The Itinerary of Count and Palatine William Drugeth in 1328–1342

Keywords: history, Hungary, Middle Age, itinerary, palatine, traveling
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to create the itinerary of William Drugeth, who held the office of palatine from 1334 until his death in 1342. An Itinerary means the day-book with the date and the place where the person was. This informations could bring to us knowledge about his travelling around the country in a main part in Hungary. The itinerary itself contains charts with dates, places where documents was created and signatures of documents, followed by brief analysis of the problem parts. This work may be beneficial when it comes to the clarifying medieval history.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 256-275 © Verbum 2015
Ján GOLIAN: Štyristoročná matrika slobodného kráľovského mesta Krupina v kontexte dobových dejín / The Four-Hundred-Year-Old Registry of the Free Royal Town of Krupina in the Context of History

Keywords: history, Slovakia, Krupina town, 17th century, registries, demography 
ABSTRACT: One of the oldest registries preserved in Slovakia constitute the church records of ceremonies from the free royal town of Krupina dating back to 1614. Initially, it kept records of Lutherans and then up to 1755 it concentrated on the Catholics living in the centre of the Hont region. Krupina as an ancient free royal town constituted a buffer area of Hungarian-Turkish military conflicts in the 17th century. The town with about 3,000 inhabitants was a border fortress.
Initially, the Krupina registry was within the archives included in the registries of Catholic parishes. However, its almost whole episode written in the 17th century belongs to the records of Protestant population. The book contains the records of married, baptized, and buried. The town history is infamously known for the right of the sword (ius gladii) that was used in the centre of the Hont region in many trials and tortures of local “witches”. The value of the registry is also high due to the fact that it was led by several prominent personalities. Daniel Láni, Ján Burius or Jeremiáš Pilarik belonged to the most significant protagonists of the life of the Lutheran Church in the territory of Slovakia in the difficult conditions of the 17th century. The registry brings a great number of empirical data supplemented with an artistic dimension, mainly shown in the form of many chronograms.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 276-284 © Verbum 2015
Rozhovor s profesorom Janom Rychlíkom: „Sedavé zamestnanie je údelom historikov“ / Interview with Professor Jan Rychlík: “Sedentary job is the destiny of historians”

ABSTRACT: Prof. PhDr. Jan Rychlik, DrSc. (born. 1954 in Prague) is one of the most important contemporary Czech historians. He works for the Masaryk Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and at the same time as a lecturer of modern Czech and Slovak history at the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University in Prague. In the years 2006 to 2012 he worked externally at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Saint Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Slovakia, lecturing the world's history of the 19th and 20th century. From 2012 works externally at the Faculty of Natural and Humanitarian Sciences of the Technical University in Liberec, Czech Republic. He is an expert in the field of the historical Slavic Studies, dealing with Czech, Slovak, Balkan and Central European history of the 19th and 20th century. The Balkan region is just one of the heart matters he is dealing with. He is the author of several publications.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 285-310 © Verbum 2015
Recenzie / Reviews

Tomáš Klokner (ed.), Bibliotheca Alexandrina II (Marek Babic) (p. 285) 
Michal Valčo - Daniel Škoviera, Catechesis D. Leonarti Stöckelii pro iuventute barthphensis composita [Anno 1556] = Katechizmus Leonarda Stöckela a jeho teologicko-filozofický odkaz (Anton Lauček) (p. 288)
Dušan Škvarna - Adam Hudek, Cyril a Metod v historickom vedomí a pamäti 19. a 20. storočia na Slovensku (Matej Maruniak) (p. 289)
Radek Lipovski, Lidé poddanských měst Frýdku a Místku na sklonku tradiční společnosti (1700 – 1850) (Ján Golian) (p. 292)
Jaroslav Coranič, Z dejín Gréckokatolíckej cirkvi na Slovensku (Michal Valčo) (p. 294)
Michal Stehlík, Slovensko. Země probuzená, 1918 – 1938 (František Koreň) (p. 297)
Jozef Nemčok, Cesta smrti a života. Alebo útek z partizánskeho hrobu v Sklabini (Roland Valko) (p. 299)
Róbert Kiss Szemán - Simona Kolmanová (eds.), „Němá nauka stromů o spáse.“ Antologie maďarské katolické literatury (Edita Príhodová) (p. 301)
Bohumil Jiroušek, Karel Stloukal. Profesor obecných dějin (Lukáš F. Peluněk) (p. 306)
Alena Valjašková (ed.), Kniha 2014 : Zborník o problémoch a dejinách knižnej kultúry. Výskum dejín knižnej kultúry na Slovensku a v stredoeurópskom priestore (Anna Safanovičová) (p. 308)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 311-330 © Verbum 2015
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Marcela Domenová - Drahoslav Magdoško (eds.), Poznávanie dejín Slovenska (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 311)
Hans Küng, Sieben Päpste : Wie ich sie erlebt habe (Jaroslav Nemeš) (p. 312)
Jiří Kovařík, Vítězové nad Kartágem. Římske války I : Latinské, etruské, galské a samnitské války, válka s Pyrrhem, tři punské a tři makedonské války (Róbert Bugáň) (p. 313)
Peter Ivanič, Kapitoly z dejín západných Slovanov v ranom stredoveku (Adela Dančeková) (p. 314)
Antony Bridge, Křížové výpravy (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 316)
Michal Slivka, Pohľady do stredovekých dejín Slovenska (Daniel Košarišťan) (p. 317)
Veronika Kucharská, Ducissa : Život kňažnej Hedvigy v časoch Jagelovcov (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 318)
Peter Mack, A History of Renaissance Rhetoric 1380 – 1620 (Jana Mikovčáková) (p. 319)
Peter Brears, All the King‘s Cooks : the Tudor Kitchens of King Henry VIII at Hampton Court Palace (Laura Fučíková) (p. 320)
Richard Bartolini : Odeporicon, prel. Eva Frimmová (Michal Mudroch) (p. 322)
Petr Chalupecký a kol., Mezinárodní hospodářské vztahy zemí střední Evropy v první polovině 20. století (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 323)
Małgorzata Wiśniewska, Strzelcy w II Rzeczypospolitej. Tajniki jednej z największych organizacji paramilitarnych II RP (Pavol Lukáč) (p. 324)
Gian Piero Milanetti, Sovětské letkyně ve Velké vlastenecké válce. Historie v obrazech (Matej Tatarka) (p. 325)
Mária Jagnešáková - Miloš Jesenský, Novoveké opevnenia na území Oravy a Kysúc (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 326)
Tomáš Janura - Kristína Zvedelová - Marek Sobola, Vidiecke šľachtické sídla v turčianskej stolici (Michal Mudroch) (p. 327)
Liptov 11 : Vlastivedný zborník. Ružomberok 2014 (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 328)
Jaroslav Coranič (ed.), Cirkev v dejinách kresťanstva na Slovensku (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 329)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 331-333 © Verbum 2015
Správy, referáty / Brief notices


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 334-337 © Verbum 2015
Internetové odkazy / Web links


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 338-339 © Verbum 2015
Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 340 © Verbum 2015
Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

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