01/2014

OBSAH / CONTENTS 2014-01

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Marcin SZYMA: Trzynastowieczne krużganki i kaplica grobowa w Lubiniu. Z badań nad związkami architektury i liturgii w średniowiecznych opactwach benedyktynów w Polsce / Thirteenth-Century Cloister with a Burial Chapel in Lubin. Research on the Relationship of Architecture and Liturgy in Medieval Benedictine Abbeys in Poland (pp. 6-18)

Agnes RITOÓK: The Benedictine Monastery of Zala/Zalavár (Hungary) / Benediktínsky kláštor v Zale/Zalavári (pp. 19-47)

Michaela KALINOVÁ: Benediktínske kláštory na Slovensku a ich pamiatkové hodnoty / Benedictine Monasteries in Slovakia and their Heritage Value (pp. 48-72)

Naďa KIRINOVIČOVÁ: Prehľad pamiatkových obnov troch benediktínskych kláštorov na Slovensku / Overview of Three Benedictine Monasteries’ Renovations in Slovakia (pp. 73-88)

Diskusie, polemiky / Discussions, Polemics

GABRIEL HUNČAGA OP: Slovenské štvrťstoročie s cirkevnými dejinami / A Slovak Quarter Century with the Church’s History (pp. 89-100)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations

Inventio Sanctae Crucis : Kyriakova legenda o objavení svätého kríža / Inventio Sanctae Crucis : The Kyriakos Legend of the Discovery of the True Cross (pp. 101-118)

Rozhovory / Interviews

Kláštor ako symbol hodnôt ľudskej existencie. Rozhovor s benediktínom Michalom Gronowskim / Monastery as a Symbol of the Values of Human Existence. Interview with the Benedictine Michał Gronowski (pp. 119-125)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 126-140)

Anotácie, nové knihy /Annotations, New books (pp. 141-157)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 158-162)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 163-167)


ABSTRACTS

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 6-18 © Verbum 2014
Marcin SZYMA: Trzynastowieczne krużganki i kaplica grobowa w Lubiniu. Z badań nad związkami architektury i liturgii w średniowiecznych opactwach benedyktynów w Polsce / Thirteenth-Century Cloister with a Burial Chapel in Lubin. Research on the Relationship of Architecture and Liturgy in Medieval Benedictine Abbeys in Poland

Keywords: history, Middle Ages, benedictine abbeys, Poland, Lubin
ABSTRACT: Archeological research in Benedictine monastery in Lubin (in Greater Poland) revealed, among others, the remains of the thirteenth-century cloister. It had four galleries and various chambers, including a chapter house and a burial chapel next to it. The positioning and way of use of the chapel allow to include it to a group of Benedictine Marian chapels associated with chapter houses and occurring in the monasteries of the congregation of Cluny and that of Hirsau. Customs of Hirsau may have been known and partially adopted in the Lubin abbey, impacting on the sacred topography of its cloister.
Benedictine monastery in Lubin (in Greater Poland) was founded at the end of the reign of King Bolesław II the Generous (1054 – 1079) . After the rapid fall, the abbey was re-established at ca. 1138-39. Shortly thereafter, the stone church was built, the main altar of which was consecrated in the year 1145. Even in the twelfth century, the church and the oldest monastery buildings (probably wooden) were surrounded by a wall. Before the end of the century the first stone monastery buildings were erected, which began to form the two oldest wings of the future cloister. The chapter house was, as usual, in the eastern wing. In the first half of the thirteenth century four galleries of unequal width were constructed in order to complete the cloister. At the same time, a chapel was built next to the chapter house. As shown by archeological research, chapel had its own altar and a place for fixing the processional cross. Among many tombs in the chamber, the oldest was the burial of an unidentified prelate, equipped with a crosier. Location and way of use of the chapel allow to include it to a group of Benedictine Marian chapels associated with chapter houses and occurring in the monasteries of the congregation of Cluny and that of Hirsau. The Lubin abbey did never belong to any of them. However, customs of Hirsau may have been known and partially adopted in the Lubin abbey, impacting on the sacred topography of its cloister. The reform of Hirsau were well known in Greater Poland, especially in Mogilno abbey, where they have been introduced probably between the year 1112 and 1124.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 19-47 © Verbum 2014
Agnes RITOÓK: The Benedictine Monastery of Zala/Zalavár (Hungary) / Benediktínsky kláštor v Zale/Zalavári

Keywords: medieval, Zalavár, monastery, inventory, precinct wall, stone carvings with interlace decoration, churchyard analysis
ABSTRACT: The Benedictine monastery dedicated to St. Adrian of Zala was founded by the first Hungarian king, St. Stephan, in 1019 on the Castle Island, above the remains of 9th century Mosaburg, in the confines of Zalavár. The abbey survived until 1948, though from the 18th century onwards it functioned in new relationships and on another locality. Documentary evidences (charters, inventories and a survey) on the monastic buildings, liturgical fittings and the library originating in the late medieval period are discussed in this paper. The medieval buildings themselves were demolished in the 18–19th centuries. Some details were still surveyed in the 19th century. The sole architectural remains – timber based foundations of a precinct wall and of a gatehouse – were uncovered by the excavations in 1951–1954 and 1963–1965. The new excavations from 1995 onwards have not reached the foundations yet, but the debate on the interpretations of the excavated remains and on the exact locality of the late medieval building complex, together with the question of dating, have already been settled by their results. The architectural shine of the buildings inside of the precinct wall is fragmentary reflected by the stone carvings of Zalavár provenance of the 11–13th centuries. The re-use of some 9th century pieces in the 11th century monastery has been proven by the finds of the excavations within the last twenty five years. The analysis of the excavated part of churchyard gave a possibility to reconstruct a small detail of the 11th century environment, the communication and also the process of Christianisation. The paper summarizes the plans and realization of the monuments and the reconstruction of their remains on site.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 48-72 © Verbum 2014
Michaela KALINOVÁ: Benediktínske kláštory na Slovensku a ich pamiatkové hodnoty / Benedictine Monasteries in Slovakia and their Heritage Value

Keywords: history, Slovakia, Middle Ages, Benedictine monasteries, architecture, protection of monuments
ABSTRACT: Today, the most important former Benedictine monasteries in Slovakia are being protected as cultural monuments. According to the categories defined by the Law on the Protection of Monuments and Historic Sites, the present paper briefly analyzes the fundamental heritage value of these monasteries. At the same time it clarifies the aims of and reasons for their protection. The realization and definition of the heritage value of these monasteries is a prerequisite for determination of a subject of protection and, subsequently, for the restoration – and thus conservation – of these monuments. This effort, however, can only be successful if their owners, representatives of municipalities in which they are located, preservationists as well as potential investors with funds available for their prospective restoration, will harmonize their aims and coordinate their efforts to conserve these monuments.
One of the oldest religious orders in Europe, the Benedictine Order, has had a significant impact on the history and cultural development of Slovakia. The material evidence of its activity includes the complexes of monastic buildings that have been erected since the time of the first arrival of respective Benedictine communities in our territory. These comprised important Benedictine convents at Zobor (Nitra), Hronský Beňadik, Diakovce, Trenčín-Opatová or rather Skalka nad Váhom, and in Rimavské Jánovce. Remnants of their monastic buildings or churches, carrying the traces of later reconstructions, have survived to this day and at present they are being protected as national cultural monuments. The Law on the Protection of Monuments and Historic Sites (No. 49/2002 of Law Code) defines the heritage value as “the aggregate of historic and social value, value in relation to landscapes and townscapes, architectural, scientific and technical value and value for the visual and applied arts meriting individual or territorial protection”. The paper analyzes individual categories of heritage value stipulated by the Law, using particular examples in the above mentioned monasteries. Its aim is to point to the current approaches in the protection of monuments and to illustrate what is now understood as historically valuable. By defining this heritage value and a particular subject of protection, a base of knowledge is being made that constitutes a basis for selecting a suitable approach to the renovation and exhibition of these monuments. Their appropriate renovation as well as adequate maintenance are essential if they are to be preserved for the future.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 73-88 © Verbum 2014
Naďa KIRINOVIČOVÁ: Prehľad pamiatkových obnov troch benediktínskych kláštorov na Slovensku / Overview of Three Benedictine Monasteries’ Renovations in Slovakia

Keywords: Slovakia, history, Benedictines, Hronský Beňadik, Skalka nad Váhom, Krásna nad Hornádom, Gothic style
ABSTRACT: In the past, even shortly after their establishment, Benedictine monasteries did not avoid various reconstructions and modifications. This was often happening only after several decades of their existence. In addition to their frequent rebuilding and modernization, these large monastic complexes, consisting of a number of buildings, also required a constant maintenance. The present paper, however, focuses on the later targeted reconstructions and modifications, connected with the beginnings of the institutionalized care for monuments and historic sites in Austria-Hungary that were implemented from the 2nd half of the 19th century, as well as on subsequent renovations carried out in the course of the 20th century up to the present. As examples, we selected three sites: the monastery with the Church of St. Benedict in Hronský Beňadik, the second oldest and still very well preserved Benedictine monastery in Slovakia, the Benedictine monastery in Skalka near Trenčín, preserved as ruins, and the defunct Benedictine monastery in Krásna nad Hornádom as an archaeological site.
The paper presents the renovations of three historical monuments – the Benedictine monasteries: the Benedictine abbey in Hronský Beňadik with a well-preserved Benedictine church with monastery, the Benedictine monastery in Skalka nad Váhom (so called „Big Skalka“), today only the ruins, and an archaeological site – the ceased Benedictine monastery in Krásna nad Hornádom. The paper shows the most fundamental renovations of these buildings from the 19th century up to the present. Led by architect Ferenc Storno, the first large reconstruction in Hronský Beňadik was carried out at the end of the 19th century. Finished in 1889, it was implemented in the spirit of the contemporary neo-gothic style. For the architecture of the church and the monastery it meant several radical interventions, e.g. removing original ancient parts (especially from the Renaissance period) and creation of some new architectonic elements to highlight the Gothic character of the buildings. This neo-gothic reconstruction left its marks on both the exterior and interior of the church. It included the restoration of the wall paintings as well as completely new equipment of the church. The following restorations were carried out from the second half of the 20th century and today they face up to the 19th century modifications that caused degradation of several architectonic elements. As to the Benedictine monastery in Skalka nad Váhom, the first amateur architectonic interventions were focused on the reconstruction of the chapel as a place of pilgrimage. Supervised by the experts – preservers – from the National Monuments Commission and later from the state monuments administration, it started to conserve its ruins in the early 20th century. A large project of stabilization and conservation of its ruins was carried out in the 1990s. The ceased Benedictine monastery in Krásna nad Hornádom was examined by the archaeologist Belo Polla in the 1970s. However, his findings have not been appropriately presented.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 89-100 © Verbum 2014
GABRIEL HUNČAGA OP: Slovenské štvrťstoročie s cirkevnými dejinami / A Slovak Quarter Century with the Church’s History

Keywords: Christianity, history, historiography, methodology, Slovakia
ABSTRACT: The author of the paper deals with the place and role of the historiography of the Church (Christian historiography) in Slovakia within the last 25 years. He tries to define the framework in which it should operate. By means of the example of the shift of emphasis in the study of the Church’s history he points to the new methodological prospects that are opening up for the Church historians in Slovakia. In conclusion the author critically evaluates the failures of Slovak Christian historiography and suggests the direction it should be heading to become accepted and respected by historians.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 101-118 © Verbum 2014
Inventio Sanctae Crucis : Kyriakova legenda o objavení svätého kríža / Inventio Sanctae Crucis : The Kyriakos Legend of the Discovery of the True Cross

Keywords: ancient hagiography, historiography, Kyriakos, St. Helena, True Cross
ABSTRACT: The so called Kyriakos legend is one of three versions of the early Christian legend of the discovery of the True Cross. Most of modern scholars believe that the oldest version is “the Helena legend” which was put in writing c. 390 AD by Gelasius of Caesarea in his lost Church History, written in Greek language. The second version of the story is “the Protonike legend” which is known only in Syriac language as a part of the Doctrina Addai. The youngest and at the same time the most popular is the Kyriakos legend which originated at the beginning of the 5th century and circulated in three languages – Greek, Latin and Syriac. In this paper the author briefly discusses the question of the original language of the Kyriakos legend, its content as well as the purpose and historical context of the story. For the first time the Kyriakos legend is translated into Slovak language.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 119-125 © Verbum 2014
Kláštor ako symbol hodnôt ľudskej existencie. Rozhovor s benediktínom Michalom Gronowskim / Monastery as a Symbol of the Values of Human Existence. Interview with the Benedictine Michał Gronowski

ABSTRACT: Dr hab. Michał T. Gronowski, OSB, is a Polish historian, medievalist, who deals with the medieval history of Benedictine communities in Poland and Europe. He works as a chief editor of the Tyniec publishing house as well as custodian of the museum and archive of the Benedictine Abbey in Tyniec near Cracow. He also lectures at the Institute of history, University of Silesia in Katowice, where he teaches courses on history of medieval culture and monastic life. He has studied as visiting scholar at the University La Sapienza in Rome, at Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte, at the Center for Medieval Studies of the Utrecht University and at the Universities of Bologna and Göttingen. He is an author of two monographs: Zwyczajny klasztor, zwyczajni mnisi. Wspólnota tyniecka w średniowieczu(Cracow, 2007), and Spór o tradycję. Cluny oczyma swoich i obcych : pomiędzy pochwałą a negacją (Cracow, 2013).


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 126-140 © Verbum 2014
Recenzie / Reviews

Zuzana Lopatková, Cirkevné dejiny stredovekého Slovenska. Vysokoškolská učebnica (Michal Šebeňa) (p. 126)
Peter Labanc, Vývoj šlachty na Spiši do začiatku 14. storočia (David Papajík) (p. 131)
Daniela Dvořáková, Čierna kráľovná. Barbora Celjská (1392 – 1451). Životný príbeh uhorskej, rímsko-nemeckej a českej kráľovnej (Štefan Valášek) (p. 132)
Frederik Federmayer et al.,Magnátske rody v našich dejinách 1526 – 1948 (František Koreň) (p. 134)
Miloš Trapl - Karel Konečný - Pavel Marek, Politik dobré vůle. Život a dílo msgre Jana Šrámka (Peter Zmátlo) (p. 137)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 141-157 © Verbum 2014
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Štefan Vragaš, Cyrilo-metodské dedičstvo v náboženskom, národnom a kultúrnom živote Slovákov (Miroslava Sabolová) (p. 141)
Tomáš Klubert, Veľkí vojvodcovia na Slovensku (Peter Rusnák) (p. 142)
Pavol Valachovič, Stručné dejiny starovekého Grécka (Mária Gaššová) (p. 143)
Paul Cartledge,Sparta : heroická historie (Tomáš Vongrej) (p. 144)
Jarmila Bednaříková, Stěhování národů (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 145)
Jarmila Bednaříková - Aleš Homola - Zdeněk Měřínský, Stěhování národů a Východ Evropy : Byzanc, Slované, Arabové (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 145)
Hans Eberhard Mayer, Dějiny křížových výprav (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 146)
Simonetta Cerriniová, Templářská revoluce : ztracený příběh z 12. století (Michal Tomaštík) (p. 147)
Josette Baerová, A Life Dedicated to the Republic : Vavro Srobar´s Slovak Czechoslovakism (Michal Čakloš) (p. 148)
Paul Johnson, Churchill (Tatiana Blahovcová) (p. 149)
Marie Michlová, Protentokrát aneb česká každodennost 1939 – 1945 (Michal Marťák) (p. 150)
Xavier Rouard, Krycie meno “Hary” : epizóda môjho života z pohľadu tajných komunistických služieb (Katarína Mochnacká) (p. 150)
František Dlugoš, Pápeži 20. a 21. storočia. I. diel (Patrik Grieger) (p. 151)
Ján Gonos et al., Dolný Kubín na historických pohľadniciach (on historical picture postcards) (František Koreň) (p. 152)
Pavol Matula, Rozdelené Kysuce : zabratie severných Kysúc Poľskom v rokoch 1938 – 1939 (Matej Tatarka) (p. 153)
Modus. Prace z historii sztuki, 2013, roč. XII-XIII (Štefan Valášek) (p. 155)
Historická demografie, 2013, roč. 37, č. 1 a 2 (Ján Golian) (p. 156)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 158-162 © Verbum 2014
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 163-167 © Verbum 2014
Internetové odkazy / Web links

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 168-169 © Verbum 2014
Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 1, p. 170 © Verbum 2014
Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

 

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