- Category: Annum 2012
- Published: Friday, 30 November 2012 14:08
OBSAH / CONTENTS
Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles
Tomáš KLOKNER: Byrokratický aparát štátneho alimentačného fondu od nástupu cisára Hadriana / The Bureaucratic Apparatus of the State Alimentary Programme from the Accession of Emperor Hadrian (pp. 6-24)
Dzura HARDI: Nová aristokracia na dvore Karola Róberta. Budovanie osobných a politických väzieb palatína Filipa Drugetha / The New Aristocracy at the Court of Charles Robert. Building Personal and Political Ties of Palatine Philip Drugeth (pp. 25-35)
Norbert C. TÓTH: Problematika vzťahu medzi župami a hodnovernými miestami v Uhorsku v 14. a 15. storočí / The Relations between Counties and Places of Authentication in Hungary in the 14th and 15th Centuries (pp. 36-51)
Tünde KATONA: Zabeler spricht über Xylander und Thurzó. Zwei Leichenpredigten aus der Zips / Zabeler’s (Funeral) Orations over Xylander and Thurzó. Two Funeral Sermons from the Spiš Region (pp. 52-59)
Martin MACKO: Prvé pastoračné angažmán redemptoristov medzi slovenským obyvateľstvom v roku 1874 a kauza podpory spolku striezlivosti / The First Pastoral Engagement of the Redemptorists among the Slovak Population in 1874 and the Case of the Support of the Abstinence Society (pp. 60-75)
Diskusie, polemiky / Discussions, Polemics
Helena VELIČKOVÁ: Autentická tvář Alžběty Báthoryové. Co prozrazuje písmo Alžběty Báthoryové o tajemství čachtické paní / Elisabeth Bathory’s Authentic Face. What the Handwriting of Elisabeth Bathory Reveals about the Secret of the Bloody Lady of Čachtice (pp. 76-90)
Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations
Charles Marie Yrumberry de Salaberry : Cesta do Istanbulu, do Talianska a na ostrovy Archipel cez Nemecko a Uhorsko / Charles Marie Yrumberry de Salaberry : Journey to Istanbul, Italy, and the Islands of Archipel through Germany and Hungary (pp. 91-97)
Rozhovory / Interviews
Fons – skepsis – lex. Rozhovor s profesorom Ferencom Makkom (Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Szeged) / Fons – skepsis – lex. Interview with Professor Ferenc Makk (pp. 98-102)
Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 103-123)
Anotácie, nové knihy /Annotations, New books (pp. 124-151)
Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 152-163)
Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 164-168)
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 6-24 © Verbum 2012
TOMÁŠ KLOKNER: Byrokratický aparát štátneho alimentačného fondu od nástupu cisára Hadriana / The Bureaucratic Apparatus of the State Alimentary Programme from the Accession of Emperor Hadrian
KEYWORDS: Ancient Social History, Roman Empire, Alimentary Programme, Roman Children
ABSTRACT: Focused on the Roman ancient history, the paper deals with the administrative bodies which were supposed to ensure the operation of the state alimentary programme from the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117 – 138 AD). In the introduction, several basic questions concerning the existence of the programme are being answered (establishment, role, geographic scope etc.). In the following part, the author zeroes in on the bureaucratic apparatus of the programme. He introduces different types of officials from the lowest (municipal) to the highest (imperial). He pays attention to their official denomination, place and length of tenure, duties, and competences. The article is primarily based on the study of official careers (cursus honorum) of Roman officials preserved on epigraphic monuments. Its aim is to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the alimentary programme structure as well as its functioning as a whole.
The project of the state alimentary programme as one of the most significant measures taken within the domestic policy of the so-called “adoptive” emperors (98 – 180 AD) was primarily aimed at the improvement of the unfavourable demographic situation on the Apennine Peninsula and related insufficient numbers of Italics in the Roman army. The programme was based on the distribution of regular financial contributions to the selected children of Roman citizens. The funds for the programme were raised by providing inexpensive collateral loans to the Italic landowners.
As the fund-raising and the follow-up distribution of the financial contributions among beneficiaries placed high demands on administrative work, the issue of the administration of the programme had to be solved shortly after it had been established. In the first years of the existence of the programme, a preparatory phase of the project based on the distribution of capital to particular Italic towns and villages was under way. The related tasks were initially assigned to special officials from among the senior senators. Since the end of the reign of Emperor Trajan (98 – 117 AD), the provisional administration became permanent and it can be characterized as a threelevel administration. These three levels were: local administration, central administration and the emperor.
At the lowest level, the operation of the programme was ensured by towns and villages via their own officials, mostly named quaestor alimentorum. Their primary duties comprised the distribution of alimentary contributions to beneficiaries, monitoring of interest payments, and keeping files on persons who were provided state loans as well as recipients of financial assistance. They were aided by support staff (e.g. actor alimentorum).
The central administration was represented by officials coming from the senatorial (praefectus alimentorum) and equestrian (procurator alimentorum) ranks. In general, they were tasked with the control of local officials. They played important role in the initial propagation of credits among landowners. They were supposed to oversee the financial records of the programme, paying interests on the loans, and they probably had a certain jurisdiction, too. As representatives of emperor and his treasury (fiscus), they oversaw the distribution of contributions among beneficiaries, which was performed by local officials. The question is, if they took part in the distribution personally.
In the hierarchy of the bureaucratic apparatus of the state alimentary programme, Roman emperor was superior to central officials (praefectus, procurator). They were appointed by emperor and he also had a right to dismiss them. Discussions are being held about the influence of the senate over the election of the central alimentary officials, especially prefects who were chosen from among senators. Considering the interconnection of the functions of curator viae and praefectus alimentorum, it is possible that the staffing of prefects was the same as the staffing of road administrators, i.e. they were nominated by the senate and approved by emperor. The central officials worked as “the prolonged hand of emperor” and performed a control function in individual towns and villages, which acted as autonomous units usually addressing their own issues independently. However, alimentory prefects and prosecutors were not permanently installed in a certain town or village, but they always administrated a certain district, which comprised several dozens of towns and villages participating in the alimentary programme. For this reason, the control might not have been as efficient as one would have wished. Since the 2nd century AD, emperors tried to consolidate the finances of towns and villages by the appointment of special imperial commissioners called curatores rei publicae (local curators). They were assigned to a certain town or village. Although their duties included the control of the financial management of a town or village, it is possible that they also looked closely at the use of funds of the state alimentary programme.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 25-35 © Verbum 2012
Dzura HARDI: Nová aristokracia na dvore Karola Róberta. Budovanie osobných a politických väzieb palatína Filipa Drugetha / The New Aristocracy at the Court of Charles Robert. Building Personal and Political Ties of Palatine Philip Drugeth
KEYWORDS: Philip Drugeth, Hungary, 14th century, Charles Robert, New Anjou Aristocracy, Royal Court
ABSTRACT: The study explores personal ties of the Hungarian Magnate and Palatine Philip Drugeth (1323 – 1327) with representatives of the new Anjou elite during the reign of the Hungarian King Charles Robert. Philip Drugeth was the only friend and co-operator of Charles Robert from their common homeland, the Kingdom of Naples. In Hungary he made a dizzying career. The study deals with the specific position of Philip Drugeth within the new aristocracy created by Charles Robert. It also reveals life and culture at the Hungarian royal court in the first half of the 14th century.
In the study the author explores personal ties of the Hungarian Palatine Philip Drugeth (1323 – 1327) with representatives of the new Anjou elite during the reign of the Hungarian King Charles Robert (1301 – 1342). The basis of his exceptional status among the Hungarian aristocracy was in his close personal relationship to the monarch, arising from the fact that Philip, as the only person at the court, was the king’s familiar in their common homeland, the Kingdom of Naples.
It is noteworthy that the information on Philip’s personal ties and prestige at the court is confined just to diplomatic sources. After victories in wars against the rebellious Hungarian oligarchy, the monarch made him a palatine. Thus Philip became the most powerful oligarch (baron) in the kingdom and a leader of new aristocracy. He enjoyed the authority, which did not stem only from his close ties to the monarch. It also resulted from his personal and family ties with part of Hungarian barons. Among close Philip Drugeth’s friends were the head of the Hungarian Church, the Archbishop of Esztergom, Thomas, as well as the royal magister tavernicorum and scholar Demeter Nékcsei, the author of Charles’ financial reform. The archbishop titled Philip as his most valuable friend, and vice versa Philip symbolically regarded him as father. One of the highest officials at the court, the secretary of Charles Robert and the bishop of Eger Csanád was his godfather, just like the county head (comes) of the Zala county and future Slavonian and Croatian ban Hahold. With the exception of the latter, all Philip’s closest “friends” were eminently educated and most of them studied at one of Italian universities in the late 13th century. The very fact that they were all in close personal relationship to Philip Drugeth indicates something of his personality and the monarch as well. We can say that at the royal court it was them that were carriers of the new spirit of knighthood and courtly culture, which reminded Charles Robert of his native Naples. Philip Drugeth had the closest family ties with his devoted fellow from the times of the wars against Hungarian magnates, the Slavonian ban Mikcs Ákos. According to available testimonies, their houses in the royal residential city of Visegrád, where the courtly life took place, stood close to each other. He gave his only child, daughter Klára, to Mikcs’ son.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 36-51 © Verbum 2012
Norbert C. TÓTH: Problematika vzťahu medzi župami a hodnovernými miestami v Uhorsku v 14. a 15. storočí / The Relations between Counties and Places of Authentication in Hungary in the 14th and 15th Centuries
KEYWORDS: History of Law, Middle Ages, Hungary, County (comitatus), Places of Authentication (loca credibilia), Administration, Deeds
ABSTRACT: The author in his study deals with two regional institutions in medieval Hungary and observes their mutual relations in the 14th and 15th centuries. Together they addressed many legal cases. Their relationship, however, went through several developmental stages, from mutually useful cooperation to mutual rivalries and competition. The author of the study primarily bases his conclusions on rich archival material. For his research, he largely used historical documents from seven Hungarian counties. In particular, he observes, in what cases the counties and places of authentication (loca credibilia) cooperated, and what were their competencies. In the late 15th century their cooperation de facto ceased to exist.
The study deals with the relations between two legal institutions in medieval Hungary. These relations were determined by several laws (5/1291, 21/1231, etc.). The question is, however, in which counties was the law respected? Was the law respected in other counties? If not, what was the reason? Finally, is it possible to delimit this phenomenon in time?
The first task was to find those counties, which had approached one of the places of authentication (loca credibilia). According to our current knowledge they were seven: Baranya county, Győr county, Pozsony county, Somogy county, Sopron county, Vas county, and Zala county.
If we put all deeds together, we find out, that the oldest deed comes from the period before April 3rd, 1322 and the youngest deed is from August 5th, 1462. That is to say, that within the time span of 140 years, 105 mandates had been preserved in the seven counties. It would be hard to fail to notice that these dates are tied to two important events. The first event was the consolidation of power of King Charles I, the second one was the session of the Diet, at which various laws were discussed (it ended on May 28th, 1462) and the power of Matthias Corvinus was strengthened.
Before we search for the reason of this, let us have a look at why these mandates had appeared. Their most common objective was to investigate acts of violence. However, there were other reasons too: prohibition, delivery of wedding gifts or dowry, summons, real estate metation, and, what is really surprising, property disputes, and granting someone permanent ownership. In the deeds one can also find an answer to a very important question: where the sessions of the tribunal (sedes iudicaria) took place? Obviously, they gathered in the curia of the deputy county head (vicecomes) to resolve the issues. In this context the question arises, why in the case of other counties, where the seat of the county coincided with the place of authentication, i.e. notary office), was the procedure not the same?
We must look for the part of the answer in places of authentication. If we look at the network of the places of authentication throughout the country, we can see the following image (from the east to the west of Hungary): the number of places of authentication increases and thus exponentially decreases their territorial jurisdiction. So while the Leles convent covered eleven counties, the Csorna convent operated just in a very limited area. Presumably, the number of officials in a place of authentication was determined by this fact.
Based on these data, we believe – but it, unfortunately, cannot be confirmed by any available source – that the role of a scribe at the tribunal, which was held every two weeks, was performed by one of the clerics of the place of authentication. This was also possible in the case of counties, where the distance between the place, where the tribunal was held, and the place of authentication was not more than a few hours. At first glance this claim can seem daring, but it becomes more plausible when we take into consideration the fact, that only a small group of people mastered the art of writing, and it was not until the 15th century when the data on the first county notaries became available.
So in the early 13th century the courts of lower status also used the services of later places of authentication. A tribunal had the right to request a place of authentication for help. This was also acknowledged by the law from 1291. In our opinion the reason lay in the geographical distribution of the places of authentication. Mongol devastation in Hungarian Lowlands caused collapse of many monasteries, which in some time could become places of authentication. On the territory of Transdanubia, where the devastation was not so vast, almost every religious institution developed in a place of authentication. For this reason, although the population density was higher than in other parts of the country, in this region there was a plethora of places of authentication. In such a situation places of authentication happened to be inveigled into certain dishonest tasks. And for the strong relationship between work and incomes, the places of authentication often granted such a request. This was primarily a problem of smaller places of authentication. In the 1450’s, the problem became so serious that it had to be regulated by law.
After 1435, one may notice spread of practice, which was not even provided for by the great code (the code had been also developed before the public congregations). Henceforth the central courts, when they had to take a certain thing into account, did not only send a man from the king (palatine, provincial judge, duke), but they also often ordered a county to act in such cases. We often learn about the parallel investigations of certain matters, too: in the investigation of the same case two neighbouring places of authentication as well as a county were active. Counties and places of authentication became competitors. With such innovation they did not need the old form of cumbersome negotiations. By 1485, in serious matters public congregations were held, in simple cases a county was authorized to act without a representative from a place of authentication. Not surprisingly, the cooperation between the seven counties and places of authentication lapsed after less than twenty years.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 52-59 © Verbum 2012
Tünde KATONA: Zabeler spricht über Xylander und Thurzó. Zwei Leichenpredigten aus der Zips / Zabeler’s (Funeral) Orations over Xylander and Thurzó. Two Funeral Sermons from the Spiš Region
KEYWORDS: Hungary, Slovakia, Spiš Region, Early Modern Age, German Reformation, Funeral Sermons
ABSTRACT: The paper considers two German funeral sermons from the 17th century, connected to the city of Lőcse. One of the two texts (both known from copies from the 1620s) remembers a clerical figure of civic origins (Stephanus Xylander), and a member of a powerful aristocrat family (Stanislaus Thurzó). Besides the personal and family-related facets of mourning, in the period of Lutheran confessionalisation both cases represent an important social event, with the funeral speeches having particular relevance. The author seeks and finds occasion to reinforce faith, to offer consolation for the individual and for the community as well, and to perform acts of self-fashioning, too. Furthermore, since in the long run funeral sermons tended to become frequently consulted reading material, he is also able to fulfil his ambition to influence the reading habits and thus the literary tastes of his time (and not only among his fellow preachers).
The 1970s witnessed an upsurge in the socio-historically and rhetorically informed research on funeral sermons, which represent a unique segment of occasional poetry. The results of German scholarship had a lasting effect on the study of Hungarian funeral sermons, whether they were originally written in Hungarian, Latin, German, or Slovakian. Nonetheless, up to now, comprehensive findings have only become available concerning sermons in Hungarian. The prevailing demand for interdisciplinary approaches emerging in the early 2000s directed philological attention towards the genre, which was traditionally investigated by historians, and, obviously, theologians. It is by now generally accepted that the latest problems encountered in mediaeval and early modern studies cannot be answered without the assistance of sources like the funeral sermon, which, although by nature called for oral performance, were preserved in print. Besides the more obvious questions triggered by the text type (like innovation versus tradition in the sermon’s structure, the set of rhetorical devices applied in it, the biographical data about the departed and the remaining ones etc.), an exploration into the unique medial and communicative ideas motivating the author and/or the commissioning party also seems to be promising.
The two German sermons forming the corpus of the paper were selected on the following basis: 1) they are from the same author, and they are within a time span of half a decade (around the 1620s); 2) because the author, Peter Zabeler (or Zabler) takes leave from one of the representative figures of his own Lutheran confession, Stephanus Xylander (Holtzmann), and from the aristocrat Stanislaus Thurzó; 3) both are closely connected to Levoča (Leutschau, Löcse), which was a city of great contemporary political, economical and cultural importance.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 60-75 © Verbum 2012
Martin MACKO: Prvé pastoračné angažmán redemptoristov medzi slovenským obyvateľstvom v roku 1874 a kauza podpory spolku striezlivosti / The First Pastoral Engagement of the Redemptorists among the Slovak Population in 1874 and the Case of the Support of the Abstinence Society
KEYWORDS: Redemptorists, Abstinence Society, Brotherhood of the Rosary, Popular Missions, Diocese of Nitra
ABSTRACT: The author deals with the issue of the missions of the Redemptorists among the Slovak population in the context of the struggle against alcoholism in the 2nd half of the 19th century. In 1749, Pope Benedict XIV canonically confirmed the work of the priest Alphonsus Maria de Liguori of Naples under the name Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer. The initial activities of the Redemptorists among the Slovak population in Upper Hungary are connected with their initial activities in the Nitra diocese. They had been invited to come to the diocese for the then religious and social situation. As a principal enemy of the rural Slovak people was identified rampant alcoholism, especially in the mountainous areas of the Slovak territory. As early as in 1872, Augustinus Roskoványi, bishop of Nitra, officially supported the fusion of the abstinence society and the brotherhood of the rosary.
The year 1874 represents a significant milestone in the Slovak emancipation efforts in Hungary. In that year, all three Slovak secondary grammar schools in Revúca, Turčiansky Svätý Martin and Kláštor pod Znievom were closed, and a state investigation against Matica slovenská was launched. In addition, the so called abstinence societies that had played an important role in the raising of the public awareness among the rural people of Upper Hungary since the 1840’s, were also forbidden. However, as these societies were led by nationally conscious Slovaks, they were also suspected of promoting panslavism by the Magyar state administration.
There are several monographs and studies dealing with the above stated movement or its promoters. In general, they claim that a contribution of religious orders to the proliferation of the abstinence societies was quite small as compared to that of diocesan Catholic clergy, Lutheran clergy and intellectuals, and thus this topic is not so frequent. In principle, one can agree with such an argument. Nevertheless, it is this point of view that the author of the paper had decided to deal with the issue from. He did so on the basis of the first pastoral engagement of the Redemptorists (officially the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer) among the Slovak population which took place right in the “fatal” year 1874.
In order to avoid a possible abolishment by the state apparatus, the abstinence societies largely began to integrate into brotherhoods of the rosary from the early 1870’s. As they transformed themselves from “political” associations into church societies under the aegis of a local diocesan bishop who was in this respect independent of the state authorities, they gained certain exemption. The clergy of the Nitra diocese, where such a fused society with the permission of the bishop Augustinus Roskoványi came into existence as early as in 1872, decided to support it through the popular missions in 1874. After the fall of Josephinism in 1848, these missions began to be spread on a mass scale throughout the monarchy again. To carry out this missionary tour in several parishes in the Kysuce region and in the environs of the town of Rajec, the Redemptorists of Bohemia were eventually called up. At that time, the Czech Redemptorists did not have any monastery in Hungary. Their engagement provoked an unexpectedly sharp conflict with the state authorities. On the basis of the direct intervention of the Minister of Education and Public Worship Augustine Trefort, even the bishop Roskoványi had to cancel the missions.
The author traces back the course of the conflict, its reasons, the justifiability of the brought charges, the attitudes of the involved (episcopate, diocesan clergy, representatives of local governments, common people) as well as he tries to correct some clichés that have been incorrectly transferred to the present.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 76-90 © Verbum 2012
Helena VELIČKOVÁ: Autentická tvář Alžběty Báthoryové. Co prozrazuje písmo Alžběty Báthoryové o tajemství čachtické paní / Elisabeth Bathory’s Authentic Face. What the Handwriting of Elisabeth Bathory Reveals about the Secret of the Bloody Lady of Čachtice
KEYWORDS: Graphology, Elisabeth Bathory, George Thurzó, Sadism, Serial Killer, Schizophrenia, 17th Century
ABSTRACT: Graphology is a psychodiagnostic method. Its special merit is independence of time and space. An analysed person need not be present at time and in person. Both old manuscripts and those of the 20th century can be analysed, although the methods have to be slightly different. One has to be familiar with symbolism and use psychoanalysis. Elizabeth Bathory’s manuscripts, which are analysed in this paper, come from the years 1606 and 1607. Her intelligence was superior to other people’s capabilities, she was even genius, but she was retarded as a human being. Signs of atavism as well as anti-social behaviour are evident. Using drugs led her to schizophrenia. Manuscripts of her antagonist George Thurzo are analysed, too. The contrast between the two persons is given in a detailed description. However, both of them were partly victims of their time characterized by permanent war, cruelty, and low level of humanity in European civilization of the 17th century.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 91-97 © Verbum 2012
Mariana GORDIAKOVÁ: Charles Marie Yrumberry de Salaberry : Cesta do Istanbulu, do Talianska a na ostrovy Archipel cez Nemecko a Uhorsko / Charles Marie Yrumberry de Salaberry : Journey to Istanbul, Italy, and the Islands of Archipel through Germany and Hungary
KEYWORDS: Travelogue, Hungary, Bratislava, Charles Marie Yrumberry de Salaberry, Coronation of Leopold II.
ABSTRACT: Charles Marie Yrumberry duke de Salaberry was a French traveler at the turn of the 18th and 19th Century. In 1799 he published in Paris travelogue thesis entitled Voyage a Constantinpole, en Italie et aux Iles de l´Archipel par l´Alemagne et la Hongrie where he describes his journey across Europe to Constantinople. One section of his work is devoted to Hungary, its administration, traditions, culture and country. The present text is an example of his comments about the coronation the new the Hungarian king Leopold II in 1792 in Bratislava.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 98-102 © Verbum 2012
Fons – skepsis – lex. Rozhovor s profesorom Ferencom Makkom (Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Szeged) / Fons – skepsis – lex. Interview with Professor Ferenc Makk
ABSTRACT: Professor Ferenc Makk is professor emeritus at the University of Szeged, where he operates from his beginnings. He is a recognized expert in Byzantine studies, classical philology and auxiliary sciences of history. He was a founder and longtime head of the Department of Auxiliary sciences of history at the University of Szeged. Priority is given to research the history of medieval Hungary, focusing on Hungaro-Byzantine relations and foreign policy of the Hungarian kingdom. He has received several awards and is an author of hundreds scientific studies and monographs, many of which were published abroad. The most famous mention at least The Árpáds and the Comneni. Political relations between Hungary and Byzantium in the 12th century; Die ersten Könige Ungarns. Die Herrscher der Arpadendynastie; or Ungarische Aussenpolitik (896 – 1196).
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 103-123 © Verbum 2012
Recenzie / Reviews
LISOVÝ, Igor - VELLAS, Georgis. Starovek. Revolúcia. Osud. Ostrava; Athény : vlastným nákladom, 2012, 158 s. ISBN 978-80-260-1415-7. (Tomáš Klokner)
VANDERBERG, Philipp. Zapomenutá Hellas. Znovuobjevování starověkého Řecka. Z německého originálu (Das versunkene Hellas) přel. Vítězslav Čížek. Praha : Knižní klub, 2011, 287 s. ISBN 978-80-242-2854-9. (Igor Lisový)
BARTOŇKOVÁ, Dagmar - RADOVÁ, Irena. Antické písemné prameny k dějinám střední Evropy. Praha : Koniasch Latin Press, 2010, 160 s. ISBN 978-80-86791-65-4. (Tomáš Klokner)
IVANIČ, Peter. Stredoveká cestná sieť na Pohroní a Poiplí. Nitra : Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre, Filozofická fakulta, 2011, 108 s. ISBN 978-80-8294-882-5. (Miroslav Huťka)
Sambucus Supplementum II. Sondy do Belových Vedomostí o súvekom Uhorsku. Eds. Erika Juríková - Daniel Škoviera. Trnava : Filozofická fakulta TU, 2010, 260 s. ISBN 978-80-8082-421-1. (Pavol Miklovič)
Kresťanská kultúra a jej miesto v dejinách východného Slovenska. Ed. Marcela Domenová. Prešov : Štátna vedecká knižnica v Prešove, 2011, 204 s. ISBN 978-80-85734-90-4. (Mariana Kosmačová)
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 124-151 © Verbum 2012
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 152-163 © Verbum 2012
Správy, referáty / Brief notices
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 164-168 © Verbum 2012
Internetové odkazy / Web links