2017

02/2017

OBSAH / CONTENTS 2017 02

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Pavol LABUDA: Počiatky a povaha vedy v archaickom Grécku / The Beginnings and Nature of Science in Archaic Greece (pp. 176-199)

Ján GUNČAGA - Ladislav LANG: Lehrerbildungsanstalten in Zipser Kapitel und Eger – ihre Bedeutung für Lehramtsstudium und Schulmathematik / Teacher’s Institutes in Spišská Kapitula and Eger and Their Importance for Mathematics and Primary Education Teaching (pp. 200-212)

Anton HRUBOŇ: Budovanie kultu Jozefa Tisa / Building up the Cult of Jozef Tiso (pp. 213-239)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations

Marek Ďurčo - Jaroslav Nemeš (eds.): Kauza Martina Luthera (1520 – 1521) / Martin Luther’s Case (1520–1521) (pp. 240-286)

Rozhovory / Interviews

Päťsto rokov reformácie je našim kultúrnym dedičstvom. Rozhovor s docentom Milošom Kovačkom / 500 Years of the Reformation Is Our Cultural Heritage. An Interview with Doc. Miloš Kovačka (pp. 287-294)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 295-310)

Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 311-341)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 342-346)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 347-350)


ABSTRAKTY

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 176-199 © Verbum 2017
Pavol LABUDA: Počiatky a povaha vedy v archaickom Grécku / The Beginnings and Nature of Science in Archaic Greece

Keywords: ancient philosophy, science, birth of science, plurality
ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper is to examine the beginnings and nature of science in the archaic period of ancient Greece. The method of research is historicalphilosophical. It is historical because the interpretation of the birth of science suggested by our approach corresponds with text evidence. And it is philosophical because our reconstruction of the birth of science is able to explain the dynamic nature of the stratification of science. In the first part of the paper we deal with the methodological analysis of the issue of the beginnings of science. In the second part we analyse particular manifestations of ancient investigations that, based on the diversity of their aims and the variety of methods, gradually emancipated to become separate disciplines. In the third part of the paper we argue in favour of the thesis that disciplines emerged from philosophy in such a manner that various disciplines stemmed from the diversity of philosophy. In the conclusion we state that in Archaic Greece of the 6th-5th centuries BC science emerged from the wealth of various research approaches by gradual separation, i.e. stratification of aims and stabilization of research methods. However, not a single science but a number of disciplines appeared. They did not emerge from one philosophy but from the abundance of research approaches and aims. Only later the umbrella term “science” began to be used.
The paper focuses on the following issues: under what conditions of ancient Greece, when, why and how did the specific research approach called science emerge? We use a historicalphilosophical method. It is historical because the interpretation of the birth of science suggested by our approach corresponds with text evidence (sources and testimonies). And it is philosophical because our reconstruction of the birth of science is able to explain the dynamic nature of the stratification of science.
In the first part of the paper we deal with the methodological analysis of the issue of the beginnings of science, as the question of the origin of any cultural phenomenon (science, philosophy or art) is a comprehensive issue. Without an explicit clarification of how we understand its comprehensiveness confusion could arise in the understanding of our interpretation of the emergence of science. Our ideological assumptions are as follows: ahistoricity of global issues, semantic holism of expressions, plurality of the forms of science and the thesis of the generic affinity of disciplines. We understand philosophy, art and science as the manifestations of human culture. Then, from the historical diversity of cultures and the dynamics of their development it also follows that the expressions like “philosophy”, “art” and “science” are only collective names for a group of manifestations that are always and inevitably connected to a particular culture. So it is true that there is not a single science. There is only a gradual synchronization of the specific manifestations and practices of the certain communities of people. The historian who is led by the idea of the gradual development or crystallization of individual research practices examines the historical manifestations that these practices naturally leave behind. He/she examines the traces of materialised research results (formulated laws, explanatory models or theories). Collingwood called this phenomenon of historical development an „encapsulation of the past in the present”. If this idea proves itself to be true and the past is really encapsulated in the present, the nature and origins of individual disciplines should be traceable back based on the tracking of evolutionary changes of the milestones along the path of its development. Such milestones are basic principles, formulations of laws, mathematical proofs, cosmological models or physical theories that we find during our historical journey from the present back into the past.
In the second part we analyse particular manifestations of ancient investigations that, based on the diversity of their aims and the variety of methods, gradually emancipated to become separate disciplines (geometry, cosmology, astronomy, meteorology, physics - acoustics, pneumatics, protochemistry).
In the third and final part of the paper we argue in favour of the thesis that disciplines emerged from philosophy in such a manner that various disciplines stemmed from the diversity of philosophy. The meaningfulness of this interpretation of the birth of science is based on three prerequisites. The first prerequisite is that philosophy in the archaic period included a variety of research approaches. What speaks in favour of accepting this condition is, on the one hand, the thematic and methodical variety of the corpus of the preserved fragments and, on the other hand, the vagueness of names for the representatives of various types of archaic thinking. The second prerequisite for our interpretation of the birth of science is that individual disciplines emerged from philosophy by gradual separation by means of the specification of the goal of investigation, stabilization of methods and creation of the specific language of investigation. The proof of meeting this condition is, for instance, Aristotle’s classifcation of the areas of knowledge (epistemai). The third prerequisite on which the meaningfulness of our interpretation of the birth of science is based lies in the fact that there are contemporary reflections of the process of the separation of disciplines from philosophy.
In the conclusion we state that in Archaic Greece of the 6th -5th centuries BC science emerged from the wealth of various research approaches by gradual separation, i.e. stratification of aims and stabilization of research methods. However, not a single science but a number of disciplines appeared. They did not emerge from one philosophy but from the abundance of research approaches and aims. Only later the umbrella term “science” began to be used.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 200-212 © Verbum 2017
Ján GUNČAGA - Ladislav LANG: Lehrerbildungsanstalten in Zipser Kapitel und Eger – ihre Bedeutung für Lehramtsstudium und Schulmathematik / Teacher’s Institutes in Spišská Kapitula and Eger and Their Importance for Mathematics and Primary Education Teaching

Keywords: Hungary, teacher’s institutes, Spišská Kapitula, Eger, Johann Ladislaus Pyrker, village schools, mathematics teaching, András Lesnyánszky, Joseph Weinkopf
ABSTRACT: The main aim of the paper is to describe educational activities in the Teacher’s Institutes in Spišská Kapitula and Eger in the 19th century. These institutes were the first in contemporary Hungary to provide training for future teachers at primary level. They were founded by Johann Ladislaus Pyrker (1772–1847), bishop of Spiš in 1819–1820 and archbishop of Eger in 1827–1847. The Teacher’s Institute in Spišská Kapitula was established in 1819 and the Teacher’s Institute in Eger was founded in 1828.
Another aim of the paper is to characterize mathematics teaching at village schools in Hungary in the 19th century. It seeks to describe the didactical approaches to mathematics teaching of Georgius Pales (1753–1833), András Lesnyánszky (1795–1859) and Joseph Weinkopf (1787–1873). The results of their didactical work are very inspiring even today.
In the paper we describe educational activities at the Teacher’s Institutes in Spišská Kapitula and Eger in the 19th century. They were the first teacher’s institutes in contemporary Hungary to produce village teachers for primary level. Both institutes were established by Johann Ladislaus Pyrker (1772–1847), who was active in educational matters wherever he served as bishop (Spišská Kapitula, Venice, Eger). These institutes are an excellent example of SlovakHungarian cultural and educational relations.
The second aim of the paper was to characterize mathematics teaching at the village schools in Hungary in the 19th century. It sought to describe the didactical approaches to mathematics teaching of Georgius Pales (1753–1833), András Lesnyánszky (1795–1859) and Joseph Weinkopf (1787–1873). As they used a lot of interesting models for mathematics teaching, their didactical work is very inspiring even today. Digitisation of historical sources in archives and historical libraries allows the research on historical mathematical textbooks as well as interdisciplinary and international research.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 213-239 © Verbum 2017
Anton HRUBOŇ: Budovanie kultu Jozefa Tisa / Building up the Cult of Jozef Tiso

Keywords: Slovak State, Jozef Tiso, Cult, Hlinka‘s Slovak People‘s Party, Martyrdom, Political religion
ABSTRACT: A politician and the first Slovak president, Jozef Tiso, is among the most discussed figures in the Slovak national history and the views of his political activities vary. The wide variability of the reflection of Tiso‘s political activities oscillates from uncritical demonization through professionally balanced views to the eulogizing and apologetic perception of his career and the steps he took in the position of a professional politician between 1938 and 1945. The paper deals with the latter interpretation, analysing the process of building up the cult of Jozef Tiso in the Slovak political culture, from its origin up to the present. In the chronological order, it pays attention to the individual aspects of the image of the „national genius“ and the „first-class statesman“ with the noble human qualities created by the propaganda apparatus of the Ludak regime, and subsequently, after Tiso‘s execution in April 1947, to the image of a martyr created and formed by the pro-Ludak émigrés and the adherents of this ideological line in Slovakia after 1989. The study analyzes the issue in a wider European context against the background of the concept of sacralised policy, using Tiso’s example to point to its similarities with other „New Europe“ leaders as well as to Slovak specifics. The paper also describes the current forms of practising Tiso’s cult, framed by some old-timers’ nostalgia for the wartime Slovak State and the deliberate legendizing Tiso’s person for the purposes of political instrumentalization.
Today, Jozef Tiso is no longer a topic of great interest to the Slovak historiography. Almost all details of his life and political career are well-known. Historical research is unlikely to make any significant discoveries in this respect. All relevant issues related to Tiso’s career were exhaustively discussed and, in principle, concluded as early as in the 1990s. The reason why J. Tiso still remains a subject of lively discussions and polemics primarily lies in the way in which he has been established in the collective memory and public discourse. As early as during the existence of the Slovak Republic of 1939-1945, for a part of the society Jozef Tiso became an iconic fgure representing a culmination of national history in the form of Slovak statehood as well as of the ruling regime. As a central fgure of the Slovak State and the Ludak regime providing the integral nationalism of both these phenomena of modern Slovak history with a “protective armour”, J. Tiso became an object of unearthly respect far beyond a traditional earthly political cult. As a leader and ideologist of Hlinka‘s Slovak People‘s Party and the president of the state and a Catholic priest, he embodied a prototype of a political and spiritual leader in one person; he became a bearer of sacralized politics.
Before October 1938, Jozef Tiso was a politician with no strong story. Neither in AustriaHungary nor in Czechoslovakia was he imprisoned for his opinions for a long period of time. He was never treacherous to any regime and had a reputation of a diplomat trying to reach a political consensus at the negotiating table. After the death of Andrej Hlinka who during his life established himself as an irreplacable and unthreatenable leader of HSPP, the situation changed. In the period of the Slovak Republic during World War II, the propaganda of the Ludak regime worked on building the image of Jozef Tiso as Hlinka’s successor, the “father of the state” and a first-class statesman with a visionary power. All components of the regime‘s propaganda apparatus (print media, radio, literature, film, etc.) participated in creating this image. Jozef Tiso identifed himself with the role of the creator and the most reliable protector of the state, and he himself believed this myth, made by the propaganda apparatus. The propagandist presentation of J. Tiso was much more conservative as compared to other political leaders of “New Europe” (e.g. eccentric Benito Mussolini). In the relation of the president to the nation, the cult-forming discourse in the Slovak State was confined only to the creation of an image of a leader as a political clairvoyant showing the people the right way, which raised J. Tiso’s political self-confidence and confirmed him in the conviction of the natural position of the “first Slovak” and the only authorized preacher of the “national gospel”.
The manner and circumstances of Tiso’s death in April 1947 gave his cult, formed between 1938 and 1945, an aspect of martyrdom. They shifted the cult-forming image to the transcendental plane with mingling political and church formative factors of cult. For his supporters J. Tiso was ceasing to be a real historical fgure and his image was gradually being transformed into the form of a political saint. The sacralized respect for J. Tiso, until 1989 publicly practised exclusively in exile, was, however, not primarily a respect for his person or for the idealized qualities of one politician, priest and man, but for the myth of the perfect world of „Slovak Slovakia“, which the Ludak regime created and implanted into the thinking of its supporters. Pilgrimages to Altötting in Bavaria, to Tiso’s tomb in the Martin Cemetery in Bratislava or to his birthplace in Bytča were not and are not a manifestation of an authentic respect for J. Tiso but for the value world represented by the wartime Slovak State and J. Tiso as its principal representative.
The present day turning to J. Tiso in the form of memorial manifestations, an obstinate confirming in the cult-forming paradigms in various discussion events or even in the form of prayers, is seen by Tiso’s supporters as a transcendent pilgrimage to the mystical ideal and imaginary return to the “golden age” of the political culture of ultra-nationalism sheltered and protected by the state. The provocative declarations of emotional ties to J. Tiso on occasion of anniversary of 14 March 1939 or 18 April 1947 are among few opportunities during a year when the modern ultra-nationalism filled with obsessive ideas of the need for a regeneration of the depraved modernist society has a chance to manifest itself outwardly, to revolt against the values of liberal democracy, to emerge from the self-stylized dissent and under cover of the ritual celebration of Tiso’s cult demonstrate its vision of an ideal, pure and progressive society.
The form of the cult of J. Tiso is not a closed topic. Although in the following years the forms of the overexposed worship of the president of the first Slovak state will be surely patterned on the indicated premises, their precise contours will, to a large extent, depend on the social and political development in Slovakia and Europe.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 240-286 © Verbum 2017
Marek Ďurčo - Jaroslav Nemeš (eds.): Kauza Martina Luthera (1520 – 1521) / Martin Luther’s Case (1520–1521)

Keywords: Germany, 16th century, Reformation, Martin Luther, Pope Leo X, excommunication
ABSTRACT: In June 1518 a trial began against Martin Luther in Rome, in which he was accused of heresy. It was about controversial sentences in his 95 theses on the power of indulgences. On 15 June 1520 Pope Leo X invited him to withdraw within 60 days his theses incongruous with the Bible as it was interpreted by the conclusions of the councils and the writings of the church fathers. On 3 January 1521 he was declared an outlaw and excommunicated from the Catholic Church by a new bull.
On the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the Reformation we selected four documents to be translated that best illustrate the whole Martin Luther’s case and help understand its essence. These are two papal bulls of Leo X (Exsurge Domine, Decet Romanum Pontificem), one reaction by Martin Luther (Warumb des Bapsts vnd seyner Jungern bucher von Doc. Martino Luther vorbrant seyn) and a work by an anonymous witness to the burning of papal books in Wittenberg. As sources we used critical editions of all four texts. We cite them in the introduction to each of the appendices. We believe that the first Slovak translation of the selected historical sources will allow the readers to look into the complicated religious debate of 1520 and 1521.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 287-294 © Verbum 2017
Päťsto rokov reformácie je našim kultúrnym dedičstvom. Rozhovor s docentom Milošom Kovačkom / 500 Years of the Reformation Is Our Cultural Heritage. An Interview with Doc. Miloš Kovačka

ABSTRACT: Doc. Dr. Miloš Kovačka, Ph.D., (1940) is a Slovak bibliographer, historian of book culture and volunteer. Since 1966 he has worked in the Bibliographic Institute of the Matica slovenská, he has participated in important national research and priority projects in the field of designing the national library and information system of the Slovak Republic, national informatisation programmes, the history of book culture and national cultural heritage. In 1991–2011 he worked as director of the National Bibliographic Institute of the Slovak National Library and in 2001–2010 as a teacher in the field of documentation of cultural heritage, history of Slovak literature and church history at the University of Žilina and at the Biblical School in Martin.
As a member of the Lutheran Church of the Augsburg Confession in Martin he worked as a presbyter of the church in 1993–2015 and as editor of the church magazine Martinský evanjelik [Martin Lutheran] in 1993–2017 with the aim of contributing to the spiritual renewal of Christian life in Slovakia. He edited and published scholarly monographs and edited books, facsimile editions of sources, monograph studies and essays from the field of literary history, cultural history and the history of book culture. He edited and published important bibliographies, organised the life of bibliographic science and edited the publication Bibliografický zborník [Bibliographic Almanac].
He edited publications on the Lutheran Church history and the spiritual history of Slovakia. He was instrumental, for instance, in the facsimile publication of the original deed of laws of the Synod of Žilina from 1610 (2010) as well as of Bardejov Catechism – the oldest Slovak book from 1581 (2013). In the field of church history he published a number of studies and occasional essays. He wrote scenarios for various exhibitions, e.g. Bible in the Spiritual History of Slovakia, librettos and scenarios for museum facilities, scenarios for film portraits of prominent Slovak personalities and events and organized a wide range of events on miscellaneous cultural and spiritual occasions. He participated in the preparation and realisation of the continual events Spiritual Values for Today (1998–2013) and Milan Hodža Days (2006–2010).

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 295-310 © Verbum 2017
Recenzie / Reviews

Tomáš König et alii, Nitra-Mlyny. Stredoveké osídlenie lokality (Tomáš Kopták) (p. 295)
Antológia z diel profesorov pôsobiacich na historickej Trnavskej univerzite (1635 – 1777), eds. Katarína Karabová - Andrej Démuth (Erika Brodňanská) (p. 296)
Lumír Dokoupil - Ludmila Nesládková - Radek Lipovski, Populace Rakouského Slezska a severovýchodní Moravy v éře modernizace (od 60. let 19. století do první světové války) (Ján Golian) (p. 298)
Ivan Guba - Marek Syrný et alii, Jozef Lettrich a jeho doba (Peter Zmátlo) (p. 302)
Gabriela Múcsková, Jazykové zmeny v historickom vývine gramatických tvarov z aspektu gramatikalizácie (na príklade vývinu slovenského préterita) (viera Kováčová) (p. 306)

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 311-341 © Verbum 2017
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Monika Ďuďáková - Martin Počátko (eds.), Migračné procesy v dejinách Európy. Kríza alebo úsvit civilizácie? Stretnutie mladých historikov VI. (Matej Maruniak) (p. 311)
Danuša Serafínová - Imrich Gazda, Dejiny slovenskej katolíckej žurnalistiky (Ondrej Glod) (p. 312)
Ľuboslav Hromják, S výrazom lásky trvám : Životopis spišského biskupa Jána Vojtaššáka (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 313)
Peter Olexák, Kristianizácia prvých storočí : okolnosti, procesy a zmeny mentality (Tadeáš Nebus) (p. 314)
Radovan Andrejko, Šírenie kresťanskej viery na našom území (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 315)
David M. Gwynn, Christianity in the Late Roman Empire : A Soucebook (Tomáš vongrej) (p. 317)
Miriam Hlavačková, Juraj zo Schönbergu. Bratislavský prepošt v službách cisára a kráľa (Mária Vojtušová) (p. 317)
Scott H. Hendrix, Martin Luther : Visionary Reformer (Daniel Košarišťan) (p. 319)
Lawrence Paul Buck, The Roman Monster. An Icon of the Papal Antichrist in Reformation Polemics (Patrik Zeleňak) (p. 320)
Geoffrey Parker, Imprudent King : A New Life of Philip II (René Vladár) (p. 322)
Joseph Bergin, The Politics of Religion in Early Modern France (Milan Stehlík) (p. 323)
Ľubica Kázmerová a kol., Premeny osvety a vybraných školských výchovno-vzdelávacích prostriedkov na Slovensku (1918 – 1939) (Michal Mudroch) (p. 324)
Jan Rychlík - Magdaléna Rychlíková, Podkarpatská Rus v dějinách Československa 1918–1946 (Michal Mudroch) (p. 326)
Jozef Rovenský a kol., Ruskí, ukrajinskí a bieloruskí lekári v Česku a na Slovensku II (Michal Mudroch) (p. 328)
Juraj Lepiš a kol., Slovensko v roku 1943 : Politika – Armáda – Spoločnosť (Peter Svorník) (p. 330)
Ľudovít Hallon et al., Pramene k dejinám Slovenska a Slovákov XIIIb : Slováci a ľudovodemokratický režim / Zápas o Slovensko (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 331)
Drahomír Velička (ed.), František Tagáni (1816 – 1894). Mecén slovenského národného života (Eliška Horníková) (p. 331)
Aleksandr Aleksandrovič Zdanovič - Vladlen Semenovič Izmozik, Štyridsať rokov v tajných službách. Život a dobrodružstvá Vladimíra Krivoša za cára aj za boľševika (Michal Mudroch) (p. 333)
VLČEK, Radomír (ed.), Historik – Historismus – Dějepisectví : Nad životem a dílem Jaroslava Marka (Michal Mudroch) (p. 334)
Historické štúdie 49. Bratislava : Veda, 2015 (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 337)
Mesto a dejiny. The City and History, roč. 5, 2016, č. 2 (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 339)
Acta Regionalia. Roč. I/XVII, č. 1 – 2, 2016 (Lukáš Bujko) (p. 340)

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 342-346 © Verbum 2017
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp. 347-350 © Verbum 2017
Internetové odkazy / Web links
Tlače a rukopisy Martina Luthera na internete / Internet Links to Martin Luther‘s Prints and Manuscripts (p. 347)

Redakcia

Kultúrne dejiny;
Hrabovská cesta 1;
034 01 Ružomberok;
Slovenská Republika
Tel.: +421-44-43 22 708, kl. 426
E-mail: kulturnedejiny@ku.sk

Vydavateľ

VERBUM – vydavateľstvo KU;
Hrabovská cesta 5512/1A;
034 01 Ružomberok;
Slovenská Republika
Tel.: +421 44 430 46 93, +421 918 337 452
E-mail: verbum@ku.sk

© 2018  Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History