2017

01/2017

OBSAH / CONTENTS pdf

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Miroslav GLEJTEK: Výmena veľkých pečatidiel uhorských prelátov a cirkevných inštitúcií v stredoveku / Changes of Great Seal Matrices of Hungarian Prelates and Church Institutions in the Middle Ages (pp. 6-40)

Rastislav MOLDA: Kedy som sa stal Slovákom? Aspekt národného prebudenia v autobiografiách vybraných príslušníkov slovenského národného hnutia / When Did I Become a Slovak? The Aspect of National Awakening in the Autobiographies of Selected Members of the Slovak National Movement (pp. 41-56)

Erika MALINIAKOVÁ: Reakcie na civilný sobáš v Uhorsku v rokoch 1893 – 1894 / Responses to the Civil Marriage in Hungary in 1893–1894 (pp. 57-71)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations

Miroslava Trogová (ed.): Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius : O hudbe / Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius : De Musica (pp. 73-86)

Erika Brodňanská - Adriána Koželová (eds.): Spis Lectio principum – jeden z prameňov k formovaniu etického myslenia na Slovensku v 17. storočí / The Lectio principum Treatise – One of the Sources of the Formation of Ethical Thinking in 17th Century Slovakia (pp. 87-106)

Rozhovory / Interviews

„Vážte si svoje dedičstvo a podporujte slobodu a demokraciu.“ Rozhovor s prof. Mariánom Markom Stolárikom (University of Ottawa) / “Be proud of your heritage and support freedom and democracy.” An interview with Professor Marián Mark Stolárik (pp. 107-112)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 113-135)

Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 136-159)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 160-163)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 164-168)

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement (p. 169-170)


ABSTRAKTY

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 6-40 © Verbum 2017
Miroslav GLEJTEK: Výmena veľkých pečatidiel uhorských prelátov a cirkevných inštitúcií v stredoveku / Changes of Great Seal Matrices of Hungarian Prelates and Church Institutions in the Middle Ages

Keywords: Hungary, Middle Ages, seal, change of a seal matrix, iconography, office, prelate, chapter, convent
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the changes of great seal matrices in medieval offices in the church environment. In particular, it focuses on the seal matrices of the highest church representatives and institutions, such as chapters and convents. A longterm stability and constancy of seals served as fundamental guarantors of credibility in the society. Both individuals and groups changed them only for serious reasons. Prelates did so only in the cases of a change of their position in the church hierarchy due to which the content of the text (titulature) and image on the seal became passé. Another reason for a change was a mechanical damage or loss of a die. As to the church institutions, in Hungary especially loca credibilia, changes of seal matrices were mostly due to the thefts and losses in violent events such as wars and plunderings. The paper deals with the reasons for the changes of seal matrices and the time intervals within which their owners managed or failed to replace them. At the same time, it touches the issues of iconography of seal matrices.
In the Middle Ages, one of the most important means of the legal guarantee and protection of a legal document was a seal. A document without an intact seal was not viewed as legally binding. In this context, the main role was played by a great seal. There was only one seal matrix of a great seal in each offce and it was considered most important. In Hungary, however, the rules known from the Western Europe had never fully applied. For instance, other kinds of seals, such as minor, secret or ring seals, were also often viewed as authentic. The most important was who was an owner of a seal and what was their social status.
There were changes of great seals in various offces only for serious reasons. In the case of the highest church representatives, such as archbishops and bishops, they most often occurred when a prelate moved and it was necessary to change the text or image on the seal. Most of sources deal with the promotion to an archbishop‘s or bishop‘s position. As yet, there are no other known reasons for the change of seal matrices. These might have been replacements caused by a damage or a loss of a seal matrix. To fnd out how long it took to change a seal matrix after the new prelate had taken offce is often impossible due to the lack of sources. In most cases the sources allow us only to reconstruct the time of absence of a seal. It is in the cases when the use of an older seal matrix is mentioned in the corroboration of a document. For instance, one such corroboration reads that a prelate used his old seal matrix because he still had not his new matrix, or he used another sort of seal (seal ring) because he still did not have his great seal matrix. In most cases prelates had quite a long time to change their seal matrices. If necessary, they could and did use older and, according to the circumsription, out-of-date matrices.
When replacing seal matrices, the prelates of the earlier period (until the frst third of the 14th century) maintained an established canon and used purely portrait (pontifcal) matrices. After the expansion of combined seal matrices in the following period various combinations of themes were used (hagiographical theme, portrait, coat of arms). Their seal images were already signifcantly individualized. The most common theme was a patron saint of a diocese in which a prelate served. Another option was an image based on the dedication of the cardinal‘s titular church in Rome.
As to church institutions, since the mid-13th century acting as loca credibilia, seal matrices were most often changed in the event of theft or loss. Several quite precisely described situations are known from the period of the Mongol invasion of Hungary (1241–1242) and from the period of instability during the reign of Ladislaus IV (1272–1290). In the case of theft there was a risk of misuse for sealing fake documents, especially property donations. For these reasons chapters and convents often acted very flexibly. For instance, the Spiš chapter was able to replace its seal matrix within less than three months after it had been plundered by Cumans in late 1289. But there was also a situation when a chapter had failed to have its new seal matrix made for long 80 years. This is the case of the Esztergom chapter which in 1242–1243 and 1319–1326 used only a minor seal matrix instead of the great, authentic matrix. Although there was a great number of changes of seal matrices by Hungarian convents and chapters, the reasons for these replacements remain unknown. In many cases there might have been minor mechanical damages which led to the changes of matrices.
In the event of a change of a seal matrix it was also necessary to create a new image. It was most often based on the picture of the previous matrix. The new image was either partially modifed (e.g. the same saint was depicted in another iconographic scene) or it was an attempted copy of the previous image. Only very seldom did the church institutions decide for a radical change. Such a case is, for instance, the Benedictine monastery in Hronský Beňadik. While there were three replacements of its seal matrix during three centuries, each matrix bore a different image. In the first case there was a depiction of a sacral object, in the second case an image of the patron saint of the convent – St. Benedict – and the latest matrix bore an image of Madonna with child Jesus in her arms (Assumpta) with the abbot of the monastery kneeling in front of her.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 41-56 © Verbum 2017
Rastislav MOLDA: Kedy som sa stal Slovákom? Aspekt národného prebudenia v autobiografiách vybraných príslušníkov slovenského národného hnutia / When Did I Become a Slovak? The Aspect of National Awakening in the Autobiographies of Selected Members of the Slovak National Movement

Keywords: autobiography, Slovak national movement, elites, national awakening
ABSTRACT: Several representatives of the Slovak national movement recorded their memoirs in the form of autobiographies that became part of literary magazines. Some of them were even published as books. In our paper we focused on the aspect of national awakening that had been frequently recorded in these autobiographies. We paid attention to what means of expression were used to describe this process in the examined sources and to who or what caused national awakening in individual authors. We zeroed in on the role of parents, frst teachers, schools and student societies in the process of national emancipation.
The paper has an analytic character and its conclusions are based on a text analysis – autobiographies of the representatives of the Slovak national movement. The analysis is also based on the results of other scholars, especially on the works of literary historians, which emphasizes the interdisciplinarity of the researched issue.
The ambition of the paper is to show how Slovak intelligentsia recalled the process of their own national awakening. To this end we examined the autobiographies of Slovak nationalists that were written in the “long” 19th century. These are interesting sources in several respects. In these works Slovak nationalists, especially late in life as already mature men, presented their views of their own life paths. Memoirs in the form of autobiographies were written by several members of the Slovak national movement. These works were part of literary magazines and some of them were even published as books.
The main objective of the paper was to focus on the aspect of national awakening that had been quite frequently recorded in the autobiographies of Slovak nationalists. When analyzing the text we zeroed in on what means of expression were used to describe this process in the examined sources and on who or what caused national awakening in individual authors. We focused on the role of parents, frst teachers, schools and student societies in the process of national emancipation.
This process is frequently set in the school environment not as a direct consequence of educational process but as an activity of student societies and personalities involved in them. It can be also understood as the author’s message for future generations that also in Hungary, where a multi-national state was being transformed to a unitary one, it was possible to form other national consciousness and identity than those supported by the state.
Since there was no compact educational system that would be able to produce nationally conscious members of the Slovak national movement in the selected period, national education and the formation of national consciousness had to be carried out in seclusion, in student societies in the form of self-education or private lessons. While autobiographies stressed the importance of student societies in the process of the formation of national identity, they largely simplifed many historical facts. This led to the creation of a canon that would be regularly repeated and later uncritically adopted by historiography as well.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 57-71 © Verbum 2017
Erika MALINIAKOVÁ: Reakcie na civilný sobáš v Uhorsku v rokoch 1893 – 1894 / Responses to the Civil Marriage in Hungary in 1893–1894

Keywords: public meetings, civil marriage, Catholic Church, liberal government, secularism
ABSTRACT: Passing the liberal law on the compulsory civil marriage by the Diet
of Hungary in 1894 gave rise to a heated debate. The law was one of the so-called church-political laws that were set by the government of Sándor Wekerle as its priorities. In that time it was a controversial law. It changed the previous marriage forms and had an impact on the integrity of the Catholic sacramental marriage. The frst mentions of the marriage reform and the introduction of civil marriage date back to 1868. Political climate, however, matured enough for the marriage reform as late as in 1890. In terms of the marriage reform, the most dynamic year was 1894 when crucial parliamentary deliberations and key civil public meetings took place in Budapest.
In the streets of several cities the Hungarian public expressed their attitude to the debated church-political laws in an effort to influence the ongoing deliberations. At some, especially county meetings the issue of the church-political reforms became an associated topic. Along with a clear attitude against the reforms the organizers appealed to the national consciousness of participants. Therefore, the public meetings not exclusively dealing with the church-political laws in Hungary were prohibited. The liberal meetings were held in the spirit of Hungarian national unity. The following paper provides an insight into the Hungarian society coming to terms with the marriage reform in the public space.
The church-political situation of the 1890s in Hungary makes complete the context of changes of religious behaviour on the European continent in the “long” 19th century. In order to fully understand the reform moods and intentions, it is necessary to note partial reforms in the state. Therefore, in order to understand the church-political situation in Hungary, it is important to know each of the church-political laws. In this paper we focus on the responses of the Hungarian society to the Act XXXI/1894 on civil marriage. The aforesaid act was controversial in that time because it cancelled the long-established marriage forms and the validity of the Catholic sacramental marriage. A wave of opposition against the compulsory form of civil marriage emerged, especially on the part of the Catholic Church.
The debate on the marriage reform culminated in 1893–1894. It involved all social classes because the changes affected every Hungarian citizen. The present paper analyzes the moods and results of public meetings against the church-political laws and the civil marriage. The reform of marriage was viewed positively by the liberal club and negatively by the Catholic Church. Opinion differences between both sides are represented by the described public meetings in Hungary. The analysis has generated interesting facts. First of all, it has pointed to the civil interest in expressing one‘s opinion pro or con the marriage reform. It has shown a huge political mobilization of conservative Catholic circles and the institutionalization of political Catholicism in Hungary (Catholic People‘s Party). The complex church-political situation between the State and the Church generated new personalities (also from the ranks of laity), whose erudition and potential was clear not only from their lectures at the Catholic congresses but also from their literary activities. Although the pressure of the Catholic public was high, the law was eventually passed by the Diet of Hungary and sanctioned by the monarch in 1894. In October 1895 it came into force and with minor amendments would remain effective up to 1949.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 73-86 © Verbum 2017
Miroslava Trogová (ed.): Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius : O hudbe / Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius : De Musica

Keywords: Boethius, seven liberal arts, quadrivium, medieval music, Pythagorean tradition
ABSTRACT: De institutione musica is one of the most famous works by Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius. The author introduces the traditional forms of music and its properties. Boethius’s work is based on the Platonic and Pythagorean music tradition that defne the musical art as a harmonic mathematical discipline. Selected paragraph is concerned about Boethius’ division of the music into three types such as human, cosmic and instrumental music.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 87-106 © Verbum 2017
Erika Brodňanská - Adriána Koželová (eds.): Spis Lectio principum – jeden z prameňov k formovaniu etického myslenia na Slovensku v 17. storočí / The Lectio principum Treatise – One of the Sources of the Formation of Ethical Thinking in 17th Century Slovakia

Keywords: Hungary, history, 17th century, historical sources, Johann Weber, mirrors for princes, prologue, exemplum, ethics
ABSTRACT: Johann Weber, a pharmacist and reeve of the town of Prešov, reveals in the prologue of his treatise Lectio principum (1665), belonging to the genre of the “mirrors for princes”, the causes and circumstances of the origin of the treatise and emphasizes the importance of educating youth for the good of the city and the country. In order to achieve this aim, he uses the techniques typical for the genre of exemplum. Through storytelling and setting examples to follow, he encourages rulers to cultivate Christian virtues, morality, and respect for the laws and the superiors. The prologue of the treatise is a demonstration of values that the author attempts to bequeath to future generations active in the feld of politics and state ruling at various levels.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 107-112 © Verbum 2017
„Vážte si svoje dedičstvo a podporujte slobodu a demokraciu.“ Rozhovor s prof. Mariánom Markom Stolárikom (University of Ottawa) / “Be proud of your heritage and support freedom and democracy.” An interview with Professor Marián Mark Stolárik

ABSTRACT: Prof. Marián Mark Stolárik, Ph.D. (Martin 1943) graduated from the Universities of Ottawa and Minnesota. In the 1970’s and 1980’s he lectured at the Cleveland State University and was the President of the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies in Philadelphia. Since 1992 he has been Professor and Chairholder of the Chair in Slovak History and Culture at the University of Ottawa in Canada. Prof. Stolárik specializes in the history of immigration and ethnic groups in North America with emphasis on the Slovak experience. He is the author or editor of ten books and more than sixty articles in scholarly journals, including Slovaks in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1880–1976 (1985), Immigration and Urbanization: The Slovak Experience, 1870–1918 (1989) and Where Is My Home? Slovak Immigration to North America (1870–2010) (2012). He edited The Slovak Republic: A Decade of Independence (2004) and The Czech and Slovak Republics: Twenty Years of Independence, 1993–2013 (2016). He served as a consultant and contributor to The Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980) and to The Encyclopedia of Canada‘s Peoples (1999). Founder of The Slovak Studies Association (1977), he also founded and edited The Slovak Studies Newsletter (1977–1987); Now he is editor of the scholarly annual Slovakia (since 1982) and serves on the Literary Committee of the National Slovak Society which, since 1892, has published the popular Národný kalendár (National Almanach). Prof. Stolárik is married to the former Anne Ivančo and has two sons, Andrej and Matúš, whom he raised in the Slovak language.

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 113-135 © Verbum 2017
Recenzie / Reviews

Miroslav Huťka, Augustiniáni na území stredovekého Slovenska (Uhorska) (Peter Tkáč) (p. 113)
Miloslav Čaplovič et al., Karpatský front 1914/1915 (Peter Tkáč) (p. 117)
Jan Němeček - Daniela Němečková, Prototyp zrady. Životní příběh Augustina Přeučila (Pavol Lukáč) (p. 122)
Lumír Dokoupil, Z díla historického demografa (Ján Golian) (p. 125)
Pavel Marek a kol., Historik a jeho dílo. Kniha věnovaná 80. výročí narození prof. PhDr. Miloše Trapla, CSc. (Matej Maruniak) (p. 128)
Historia Ecclesiastica. Roč. 7, č. 1, 2016 (Lenka Mihová) (p. 131)

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 136-159 © Verbum 2017
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Petr Čornej, Historici, historiografie a dějepis (Studie, črty, eseje) (Michal Mudroch) (p. 136)
Peter Caban, Historicko-vedecký pohľad na tematiku vôní v Biblii a v liturgii (Peter Tkáč) (p. 137)
Emília Hrabovec a kol., Slovenský ústav svätých Cyrila a Metoda v Ríme (1963 – 2013) (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 139)
Beáta Pintérová, Z dejín bádania o príchode Maďarov do Karpatskej kotliny v slovenskej a maďarskej historickej spisbe od polovice 19. storočia do konca 20. storočia (Peter Tkáč) (p. 141)
Matúš Kučera, Stredoveké Slovensko (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 143)
Đura Hardi (ed.), The Cultural and Historical Heritage of Vojvodina in the Context of Classical and Medieval Studies (Miroslav Huťka) (p. 143)
Pavel Dvořák, Stopy dávnej minulosti 8. Slovensko v čase tureckých vojen : Smrť sultána Sulejmana (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 145)
Tünde Lengyelová, Život na šľachtickom dvore : odev, strava, domácnosť, hygiena, voľný čas (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 146)
Marek Rutkowski, Zarządzanie, Logistyką w Królestwie Polskim : zabezpieczenie przeciwpowodziowe, mosty i opłaty wodne (Michal Habaj) (p. 147)
Anton Hruboň, „Blaho vlasti – zákon najvyšší“. Národná obec fašistická a Slovensko (1926 – 1938) (Peter Tkáč) (p. 148)
Katerina Clarková, Sovětský román : Dějiny jako rituál (Michal Mudroch) (p. 149)
Katerina Clarková, Moskva, čtvrtý Řím : Stalinismus, kosmopolitismus a vývoj sovětské kultury 1931–1941 (Michal Mudroch) (p. 151)
Michal Bada - Alena Bartlová et al., Putovanie dejinami pod múrmi Oravského hradu (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 153)
Človek – Spoločnosť a dejiny (Osobnosti v dejinách) [online], ed. Marcela Domenová (Mariana Čentéšová) (p. 154)
Ladislav Tkáčik (ed.), Studia capuccinorum Boziniensia II (Matej Maruniak) (p. 155)
Z minulosti Spiša XXIV. Ročenka Spišského dejepisného spolku v Levoči, ed. Ivan Chalupecký (Peter Zmátlo) (p. 156)
Spoločnosť a dejiny (Človek – priestor – kultúra) [online], ed. Marcela Domenová (Mariana Čentéšová) (p. 157)

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 160-163 © Verbum 2017
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 164-168 © Verbum 2017
Internetové odkazy / Web links
Archívne pramene na internete / Archival Sources on the Internet (p. 164)

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 169-170 © Verbum 2017
Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

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