2016

01/2016

OBSAH / CONTENTS 2016 01

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Magda DOSTÁLOVÁ: Vilém z Rožmberka jako mecenáš věd a novodobý Šalamoun – reflexe raně novověké magie v korespondenci Ondřeje Višaty / Wilhelm von Rosenberg, as a Patron of the Sciences and a New Age Solomon – a Reflection of Early Modern Magic in the Correspondence of Ondřej Višata (pp. 6-19)

Šárka FLEISCHMANNOVÁ: Odraz morální a sociální filosofie Thomase Mora v maskách Bena Jonsona / A Reflection on the Moral and Social Philosophy of Thomas More, in the Masques of Ben Jonson (pp. 20-34)

Slavomír ZELENÁK: Cintoríny a pochovávanie v druhej polovici 18. storočia vo svetle uhorskej legislatívy / Cemeteries and Burials in the Second Half of the 18th Century in the Light of Hungarian Legislation (pp. 35-51)

Radomír VLČEK: Mysticismus Grigorije Rasputina v kontextu kulturního a duchovního vývoje Ruska přelomu 19. a 20. století / The Mysticism of Grigory Rasputin in the Context of the Cultural and Spiritual Development of Russia, in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries (pp. 52-95)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations

Svätý Gregor z Kalábrie, Vita prior / Saint Gregory of Calabria, Vita prior (pp. 96-115)

Rozhovory / Interviews

Rozhovor s historikom Tamásom Fedelesom: „Kultúrne dejiny sú zhrnutím našich vedomostí o kultúre ľudstva“ (Pécsi Tudományegyetem) / An Interview with the Historian, Tamás Fedeles: “Cultural history is a summary of our knowledge about the culture of mankind” (pp. 116-123)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 124-134)

Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 135-156)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 157-163)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 164-167)

Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors (pp. 168-169)

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement (p. 170)


ABSTRAKTY

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 6-19 © Verbum 2016
Magda DOSTÁLOVÁ: Vilém z Rožmberka jako mecenáš věd a novodobý Šalamoun – reflexe raně novověké magie v korespondenci Ondřeje Višaty / Wilhelm von Rosenberg, as a Patron of the Sciences and a New Age Solomon – a Reflection of Early Modern Magic in the Correspondence of Ondřej Višata

Keywords: alchemy, magic, patronage, Wilhelm von Rosenberg, Ondřej Višata, Francis Bacon
ABSTRACT: The main topic of this study is the science cultivated at the court of Wilhelm von Rosenberg (1535–1592), especially alchemy and its closely related magic. In the early modern period, we encounter an effort to improve human knowledge (in the spirit of the ideas of the philosopher Francis bacon), in order to reach the perfect wisdom, which Adam possessed in Paradise or the wise King Solomon. Alchemy and magic, supported by Wilhem, were seen as possible ways to achieve this knowledge. This study examines the reasons, which led Wilhelm von Rosenberg to support science, and focuses primarily on the personality of Ondřej Višata, who had the task of informing Wilhelm about the attractions and innovations in the field of magic and alchemy. In the text, the little-known letters of Ondřej Višata, addressed to Wilhem, are reflected upon, which are currently stored in the State Regional Archives, in Třeboň.
The main topic of this paper is the emerging science in the court of Wilhelm von Rosenberg (1535–1592). Attention is paid especially to alchemy and the magic associated with it. In the introduction, the early modern effort to better understand nature through science, and thus gain the ability to control nature, is briefly reflected upon. A major promoter of this idea was the philosopher, Francis Bacon (1561–1626), who also claimed that a thorough and systematic study of nature could bring oneself the perfect knowledge, which Adam possessed in Paradise. Modern sovereigns, supporting the development of various sciences, were often equated with the wise King Solomon.
This part is followed by a chapter devoted to Wilhelm von Rosenberg, as a major patron of Sciences. This chapter analyses the reasons, which led Wilhelm von Rosenberg to support the alchemists. besides the economic reasons, and the needs of representation, they were mainly due to health problems. Although Wilhelm was married four times, he did not have any offspring and, therefore, any heir. He hoped that the alchemical preparations could improve his health and thus his ability to reproduce. The strategies used by alchemists to obtain the emperor's support are also briefly presented.
The main part of the study is focused on the personality of Ondřej Višata, who had the task of informing Wilhelm about the new practices in the field of alchemy and magic, recommending suitable candidates into Wilhelm's services and searching for the various alchemical medicinal drugs, magic items and books for him. This part is based mainly on the not yet reflected upon letters by Ondřej Višata, intended for Wilhelm, which are now kept at the State Regional Archives, in Trebon. Letters that contain information about various magical practices or objects are analysed using appropriate secondary literature. We compare the practices mentioned by Vyšata with the procedures described in the works of important contemporary authors in this field, such as, for example: Paracelsus (1493–1541) or H. C. Agrippa (1486–1535).
Wilhelm's support of alchemy, magic and science was in line with the contemporary efforts to understand nature, to broaden their knowledge about it and thus to get the original perfect knowledge, possessed by the first man in Paradise, or to approach the wisdom of King Solomon.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 20-34 © Verbum 2016
Šárka FLEISCHMANNOVÁ: Odraz morální a sociální filosofie Thomase Mora v maskách Bena Jonsona / A Reflection on the Moral and Social Philosophy of Thomas More, in the Masques of Ben Jonson

Keywords: Ben Jonson, Thomas More, masque, renaissance philosophy, Elizabethan poetics
ABSTRACT: The English playwright, Ben Jonson, is the author of many plays, from which The Alchemist and Volpone stands out above all; he is also the author of the theoretically oriented publication Discoveries Made Upon Men and Matter and, during the reign of James I, he became court composer of the so-called masques. Masques were a subgenre of drama, which was characterised by spectacular costumes (the scenic and costume designs were, in comparison with classical theatre, spectacular in masques, especially at the time when Jonson collaborated with Inigo Jones), also typical for them was that the courtiers themselves performed in masques and, compared to other things, that their fame was quite short lived. The transience of masques stemmed primarily from the fact that they were usually played once, it seldom happened that the masque would be presented more times. Jonson, however, was not satisfied with the fact that he put considerable effort into the work, the fame of which went away after its performance. He started to record masques, as well as to annotate them, so that the reader could at least partially have the pleasure of his work. Jonson, in this way, established a new original literary genre.
The content of masques usually used to be the glorification of the monarch and his actions. The task of the masque was to further celebrate a particular event such as a wedding or some important holiday. The genre of the masque could thus be considered to be only a means to entertain the courtiers and raising the majesty of the sovereign, but on closer inspection their importance to English culture may be uncovered. The aim of the study is to show how the masque contributed to the development of the English literary culture, in this way it is emphasised that masques did not stand on the edge of the Renaissance complex of knowledge, but rather that they were fully part of it. The fact that masques were an adequate part of the Elizabethan complex of science is, among other things, proven by the fact that a link with moral and social philosophy may be found among them. The intention of the study is thus an analysis of selected masques by Jonson, precisely in the context of English moral and social philosophy.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 35-51 © Verbum 2016
Slavomír ZELENÁK: Cintoríny a pochovávanie v druhej polovici 18. storočia vo svetle uhorskej legislatívy / Cemeteries and Burials in the Second Half of the 18th Century in the Light of Hungarian Legislation

Keywords: cemetery, burial, care, regulation, law, law-book, monarch, emperor, 18th century
ABSTRACT: The second half of the 18th century and the turn of the 18th and the 19th centuries was a very important age in the field of funeral and cemetery management. Due to the frequent occurrence of epidemics, the Vienna Court was seeking to improve the level of public health services. One of the ways was the reform of funerals. Cemetery maintenance was of a low quality. Cemeteries often did not have any fences and cattle were pastured there, graves were very shallow and there were also many other negative factors. All these facts meant a serious risk to public health and the Vienna Court decided to solve this situation. The author of this article provides a look at the measures, which were taken during the reigns of Maria Theresa, Josef II and Leopold I. Some laws were enacted by the Hungarian Vice-regency Council itself. The author presents in detail not only the wording of these regulations, but also their overall importance. At the end of the article, he makes an assessment of their overall contribution to cemetery maintenance and to public health.
Humanism and the Renaissance was a period when many well-established religious traditions had to give way to more rational and practical views in many areas of social life. The area of funerals was no exception, and as early as during the Renaissance period, the impact of cemeteries on public health increasingly began to be revaluated. During the period of absolutism, no more radical reforms in this area came to Hungary. It was just the Viennese government court, which opened up Hungary for many reforms that had already been realised in Western Europe. Maria Theresa was the first monarch, who embarked on major reforms. A frequent occurrence of epidemics required strong measures and one of the ways to prevent their occurrence was to increase cemetery maintenance. It was just a question of public health, which set in motion a series of important measures. The most important of Maria Theresa´s reforms was the so-called “Regulatio coemeteriorum”, which ordered that cemeteries should be set up outside a built-up area and fenced properly because of freely moving cattle and game. Also ordered was the rational filling up of cemeteries in rows, regardless of family membership. These regulations came into force in Hungary, in 1777, when they were released by the Hungarian Vice-regency Council. Joseph II continued the course, in addition to his mother’s regulations he ordered a grave depth, grave dimensions and other detailed parameters of the internal equipment, as well as burials without coffins in linen bags. The problem was that the validity of the regulations was limited to the period of his reign. However, on his proposal, the Hungarian Council enacted several regulations, mainly related to tomb building in cemeteries and frequent shallow burials. The Hungarian Council continued this tendency during the reign of Leopold II and also in the first half of the 19th century; whether on the emperor’s suggestion or on the basis of local conditions, they issued a number of local regulations concerning not only insufficient cemetery fencing, but also a grave depth that was on average about 5 feet. The variety and wording of the single regulations show us not only a unique picture of low level cemetery maintenance in Hungary, before the reign of Maria Theresa, but also highlights the great contribution of the Viennese Court reforms for the territory of Hungary. The result was a detailed record of the situation in single areas, which must have left its mark on the real overall level of public health.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 52-95 © Verbum 2016
Radomír VLČEK: Mysticismus Grigorije Rasputina v kontextu kulturního a duchovního vývoje Ruska přelomu 19. a 20. století / The Mysticism of Grigory Rasputin in the Context of the Cultural and Spiritual Development of Russia, in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Keywords: Russia, the Russian Orthodox Church, the old man (“starec”), Rasputin
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to bring the mysticism of controversial personality, Grigory Rasputin, within the context of the Russian elders and the operation of the Russian Orthodox Church, but also the overall picture of the cultural, economic and political status of Russia of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as well as the life of Russian society at that time. This is a contribution to the cultural, spiritual and wider everyday history of Russia, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is especially about the demystification of the claims about the exceptionality of the extraordinary capabilities of Grigori Rasputin and his considerable influence on leading figures in Russian politics. The work is of an analytic character; it draws mainly from the sources of a personal nature and primary literature, but also relies on secondary literature, especially the latest knowledge of Russian historiography. The study is based upon and, in particular in the context of what is happening, develops and supplements the author‘s study, Grigory Rasputin and Russia in the 19th and 20th centuries, which was compiled in 2003. Within it, the mentioned knowledge develops and especially implants into a new, broader context. New is interpreting Rasputin as part of the system.
Grigory Rasputin was one of the most famous personalities of the Russian spiritual world of the late 19th and 20th centuries. He was an extremely famous man, who was leaning against the traditional Russian belief that the truth can be told and spread only by a simple man – a muzhik. Rasputin undoubtedly had healing abilities. He was a visionary with extraordinary abilities of memory. This enabled him to interpret some doctrinal matters with extraordinary precision, according to what he copied from the monks on Mount Athos. This has linked him with the Russian elders – missionaries, ascetics and mystics in one person, becoming extremely attractive, even among circles of St. Petersburg’s church hierarchy. His healing skills then had a positive impact on Tsarevich Alexei, who suffered from incurable haemophilia. For this, especially Tsarina Alexandra, but also the Russian Tsar Nicholas II, was extremely appreciative, who saw in him a valuable mentor in many matters of life in Russia. Rasputin, however, did not have absolute power. He organically and linearly fit among the other elders and mystics, from whom, in the folk religion, were expected to not only predict the threat of the end of the world, but also show whether and how they can desirably stave it off. Mystical séances to which Rasputin was invited, were an attempt to predict the future of individuals and everyone, and to satisfy the desires that the participants of such actions had in mind.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 96-115 © Verbum 2016
Svätý Gregor z Kalábrie, Vita prior / Saint Gregory of Calabria, Vita prior

Keywords: Middle Ages, Hungary, hagiography, historiography, Saint Gregory of Calabria
ABSTRACT: Saint Gregory of Calabria was the first abbot of the Basilian monastery, Aachen-Burtscheid, which was founded in the year 997 by Emperor Otto III, not far from his royal residence. He was born sometime between the years 930 and 940 in the territory that had been under the administration of the Byzantine Empire. According to historical sources, he was a Greek, originating from the southern Italian town of Cerchiara. According to the earlier legends (Vita posterior), he was the brother of the emperor’s mother, Theophanu, but according to today's research, he actually came from a wealthy family in Calabria. The Greek colonisation of the southern part of the Apennine peninsula, in the 9th and 10th centuries, was an interesting phenomenon. When the Saracens began to displace them around the year 990, Gregory came to Rome, where he has settled in the monastery of St. Alexius and Boniface on the Aventine. In Rome, in the year 996, the young Emperor Otto III met with Abbot Gregory. In the “Eternal City”, where Gregory acted as a preacher and teacher, he had to profoundly impress the monarch with his piety. In the same year, the Emperor Otto III summoned him to the establishment of a monastery near his palace, as an imperial document, from 6th February 1000, talks about it.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 116-123 © Verbum 2016
Rozhovor s historikom Tamásom Fedelesom: „Kultúrne dejiny sú zhrnutím našich vedomostí o kultúre ľudstva“ (Pécsi Tudományegyetem) / An Interview with the Historian, Tamás Fedeles: “Cultural history is a summary of our knowledge about the culture of mankind”

ABSTRACT: Tamás Fedeles (born 1974), after passing the maturity exams in the Franciscan Grammar School of Pelbárt Temesvári, in Esztergom, studied theology in Pécs. After receiving a degree, he studied history at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Pécs. In 2005, in the field of Medieval Studies at the Institute of History of the University of Szeged, he defended his thesis, entitled “The members of Pécs chapter, in the late Middle Ages.” Tamás Fedeles is currently a member of several historical societies, he is participating in international investigations, and he has completed several long-term foreign stays, especially in Germany and in the Vatican. He deals with ecclesiastical medieval history, historical auxiliary sciences and the misrepresenting of historical sources. He is the author and co-author of several monographs: Isten nevében utazunk. Zarándokok, búcsújárás, kegyhelyek a középkorban. Pécs 2015. 354 p.; A király és a lázadó herceg. Az Újlaki Lőrinc és szövetségesei elleni királyi hadjárat (1494 – 1495). Szeged 2012, 256 p.; Die personelle Zusammensetzung des Domkapitels zu Fünfkirchen im Spätmittelalter (1354 – 1526). Regensburg 2012, 485 p.; Eztán Pécs tűnik szemünkbe. A város középkori históriája (1009 – 1526). Pécs 2011, 200 p.; Pécs (Fünfkirchen) : Das Bistum und die Bischofsstadt im Mittelalter. Wien 2011 (coauthor László Koszta).


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 124-134 © Verbum 2016
Recenzie / Reviews

Hugo Grotius : O pravdě křesťanského náboženství, ed. Jana Engelbrechtová (Adam Bžoch) (p. 124)
Kultúra pretrvá svojho tvorcu : Zborník venovaný 20. výročiu úmrtia Ladislava Hanusa, eds. Peter Zmátlo - Juraj Považan (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 127)
Erik Dulovič, Juraj Slávik. V službách Československa. Politická biografia 1890 – 1935 (Pavol Lukáč) (p. 129)
Historické štúdie k životnému jubileu Pavla Valachoviča. Acta historica Posoniensia XXX, eds. Tomáš Klokner - Lukáš Rybár (Marek Babic) (p. 132)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 135-156 © Verbum 2016
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Filip Wittlich, Fotografie – přímý svědek?! : Fotografický obraz a jeho význam pro historické poznání (Lukáš Katriňák) (p. 135)
Brian Cummings - Freya Sierhuis (eds.), Passions and Subjectivity in Early Modern Culture (Katarína Furdáková) (p. 136)
Miloš Jesenský, Historické prírodné katastrofy v Žilinskom kraji : v kontexte environmentálnych dejín Slovenska (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 137)
Vladimír Rábik, Monumenta Vaticana Slovaciae. Tomus IV. Camera Apostolica 1 (Libri formatarum 1425 – 1524) (Michal Šebeňa) (p. 138)
Milan Vároš, Poklady panovníkov a slovenskej šľachty. Osudy strate ných umeleckých pamiatok (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 140)
A Companion to the Eucharist in the Reformation, ed. Lee Palmer Wandel (Patrik Griger) (p. 141)
Jane Dawson, John Knox (Peter Rusnák) (p. 142)
Simone Laqua-O’Donnell, Women and the Counter-Reformation in Early Modern Münster (Anna Smreková) (p. 144)
Rastislav Molda, Ideálny obraz národa. Stereotypizácia uhorských národností v slovenskej cestopisnej a národopisnej literatúre 19. storočia (Matej Maruniak) (p. 146)
Stephen J. Lee, Európske diktatúry 1918 – 1945 (Michal Mudroch) (p. 147)
Paul Kennedy, Architekti vítězství. Jak byla v období od ledna 1943 do června 1944 vyhrána druhá světová válka (Michal Mudroch) (p. 148)
Silvester Krčméry, Pravdou proti moci. Príbeh človeka, ktorého nezlomili (Ján Golian) (p. 149)
Silvia Eliašová - Miroslav Palárik - Daniela Prelovská - Pavol Šteiner, Komentované pramene k dejinám slovenského múzejníctva v 20. storočí (Slavomír Zelenák) (p. 151)
Robert O. Bucholz - Joseph P. Ward, London : A Social and Cultural History, 1550 – 1750 (Roman Petráň) (p. 152)
Matej Bel : Liptovská stolica, zost. Martin Turóci a Jozef Kordoš (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 153)
Hana Opleštilová - Lukáš Babka, Zmizelý svět Podkarpatské Rusi ve fotografiích Rudolfa Hůlky (1887 – 1961) (Igor Strnisko) (p. 154)
Střed | Centre. Časopis pro mezioborová studia střední Evropy 19. a 20. století, 2015, roč. 7, č. 2 (Matej Maruniak) (p. 155)
Magyar Sion. új folyam, 2015, roč. 9 (51), č. 2 (Jaroslav Nemeš) (p.156)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 157-163 © Verbum 2016
Správy, referáty / Brief notices


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 164-167 © Verbum 2016
Internetové odkazy / Web links


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 168-169 © Verbum 2016
Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 7, Issue 1, p. 170 © Verbum 2016
Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

 

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