2015

01/2015

OBSAH / CONTENTS 2015 01

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles
Norbert C. TÓTH: Účasť cirkvi na obrane Uhorska. Realizácia zákonného článku 63/1397 na príklade Bratislavskej kapituly / The Church’s Participation in the Defence of Hungary. The Implementation of the Legal Article No. 63/1397 by Way of Example of the Bratislava Chapter (pp. 6-27)

Bálint LAKATOS - Gábor MIKÓ: Fungovanie cirkevného súdnictva v stredovekom Uhorsku. Ostrihomský tribunál v rokoch 1399 – 1428 / The Church Judiciary’s Functioning in Medieval Hungary. The Esztergom Tribunal in 1399–1428 (pp. 28-45)

David PAPAJÍK: O výchově a vzdělávání krále Ladislava Pohrobka / On the Education and Training of King Ladislaus the Posthumous (pp. 46-64)

Nikoleta DZURIKANINOVÁ: Stanovy ako prameň k činnosti spolkov v období dualizmu (príklad mesta Košice) / Statutes as a Primary Source in Studying Associations’ Activities in the Era of Dualism (Example of the City of Košice) (pp. 65-86)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations
Sidonius Apollinaris: Pôžitky vidieckej vily v neskororímskej Galii, Ep. 2.2 / Sidonius Apollinaris: Pleasures of a Rural Villa in Later Roman Gaul, Ep. 2.2 (pp. 87-99)

Rozhovory / Interviews
Rozhovor s docentom Antonom Laučekom: „Elimináciou humanitných vied dochádza k odľudšťovaniu spoločnosti“ / Interview with Doc. Anton Lauček: “Elimination of humanities leads to the dehumanization of society” (pp. 100-106)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 107-129)

Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 130-150)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 151-162)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 163-167)

Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors (pp. 168-169)

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement (p. 170)


 ABSTRAKTY

 Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 6-27 © Verbum 2015

Norbert C. TÓTH: Účasť cirkvi na obrane Uhorska. Realizácia zákonného článku 63/1397 na príklade Bratislavskej kapituly / The Church’s Participation in the Defence of Hungary. The Implementation of the Legal Article No. 63/1397 by Way of Example of the Bratislava Chapter

KEYWORDS: Hungary, history, church tax, 14th and 15th centuries, country defence, Bratislava chapter
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with a little explored topic. On the basis of presented data it states that the church tax aimed at defending Hungary was paid by a large number of church dignitaries. Besides secular provostries the tax also had to be paid by archdeacons, Benedictine abbeys and Premonstratensian provostries. Based on the legal article, each church dignitary was obliged to pay half of all of his income. The question is whether it is possible to determine the group of those who really paid this tax. Using the obtained data, there is a good precondition for finding an answer to this question. In the following lines we will look for answers to the following questions: Who and how much would pay? Were some dignitaries exempt from the tax or were they accorded at least some tax concessions? In which years was the tax collected? Who would collect the tax and to what end would they invest the money?
“The country’s barons and nobles obliged each church to pay half of all of its income to protect the frontier zone of the state as long as the present war against the pagans is fought; and the state’s inhabitants to pay half the tithe, which is part of the subjects’ incomes belonging to the church, only to those who had been selected to collect this money. This tax income can be used exclusively for the defence of the state’s frontier zone.” In October 1397 in these words a special tax for the church was introduced at the meeting in the city of Temesvár. The church was obliged to pay half of all of its income to tax collectors appointed by the king for the monarch. In order to make the implementation of the legal article smoother, the privileges of King Louis dated 1351 (no. 65) were interrupted, or rather it was ordered that the tithe could not be paid in kind until the end of war with the Turks. At least the taxed part had to be paid in cash.
The first known tax payment by church dignitaries dates back to 1393: on 12 February King Sigismund confirmed that the Leles provost Dominik had paid the royal tax. On 12 June 1396 the former ordered Premonstratensian provosts to pay due to the then campaign against the Turks and other enemies of the state.
Based on the aforesaid information it is needless to prove that the 1397 legal article no. 63 only fixed a long-standing practice. In addition, it allowed the monarch to have his people collect this tax for the royal treasury on annual basis. The fact that the tax was really collected can be simply proved by the acquittances in the Private archives of the Bratislava chapter.
How was the tax imposed? Was the information on the incomes of all provostries and archdeaconries really gathered every year to calculate the tax amount?
Looking at the sums paid by individual institutions, this method can be hardly believable. With the exemption of one year, from 1398 up to 1429 the Bratislava chapter was obliged to pay the annual tax of two hundred golden ducats precisely.
Contrary to the letter of the law, the king by far did not require to calculate the tax amount on the basis of annual income. He commissioned church dignitaries to assess the tax. This means that the money paid by individual church institutions as half of their incomes was not at all tantamount to the half of their real incomes. Expressed in current terminology, it was a sort of average fee.
Who were the tax collectors or who were the church institutions to deliver the imposed tax to? According to the letter of the law, the tax was to be paid to tax collectors appointed by the king, barons and nobles together.
Based on the preserved data it is clear that the amount of the tax annually imposed on the middle class church dignitaries constituted a serious financial burden for the church institutions. Thus, from 1397 to 1437 the Bratislava chapter had to pay almost 8,000 golden ducats to the royal treasury. It must be said, however, that this tax was not the most important king’s income. On the other hand, along with the soldiers having been armed by individual representatives of the high clergy and with the seized incomes of vacant sees in some dioceses, it was a considerable sum of money, even though the final amount totalled less than 100,000 golden ducats.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 28-45 © Verbum 2015
Bálint LAKATOS - Gábor MIKÓ: Fungovanie cirkevného súdnictva v stredovekom Uhorsku. Ostrihomský tribunál v rokoch 1399 – 1428 / The Church Judiciary’s Functioning in Medieval Hungary. The Esztergom Tribunal in 1399–1428

KEYWORDS: Hungary, 15th century, the church judiciary, archbishopric of Esztergom, Matteo di Vicedomini of Piacenza
ABSTRACT: The knowledge of the church judiciary’s functioning in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary shows that previous historical publications contain only general, summarizing opinion when analyzing its issues. Therefore, the authors of the paper decided to examine the activities of episcopal courts in Hungary by means of a new, as yet untried method of a probe: by evaluation of activities of a single judicial vicar. This person is Matteo di Vicedomini of Piacenza (+1428) who for more than three decades lived in Hungary and in the first third of the 15th century served as a judicial vicar of the archbishop of Esztergom (in 1399-1403, 1411-1423, 1425-1428). Since he served at the highest church court of the country for a long time we can assume that he dealt with various types of cases. In this paper the authors deal with what they found in the sources. Thus, they also focus on those aspects which in the prior examinations – just due to the general character of scholarly literature – remained in the background or were absent.
The authors based their research on the document of a judiciary vicar Matteo di Vicedomini issued in Kostanz on 25 April 1417. The reason was simple. We certainly know that vicar Vicedomini was not at his seat in Esztergom at that time. Therefore, the tribunal could not function on the basis of everyday routine. Thanks to the aforesaid, the sources of this period provide us with some other information as well. As a result, we can examine the functioning of the court in some different ways than the authors of previous publications.
However, the date when Vicedomini left Esztergom for Konstanz cannot be determined even on the basis of information based on the use of seals. “Terminus post quem” is provided by the document from August 1416 (in which vicar’s deputy Andrej is mentioned for the first time) because it was issued, though not confirmed with his great seal, by Vicedomini in person. After this date there are no further documents confirmed with sigillum maior until July 1417. How did the tribunal function in the time of vicar’s absence? The documents of this period can be divided into two groups. The first group contains the documents issued on behalf of vicar. On the other hand, the second group consists of those documents that were issued on behalf of vicar’s deputy. On the documents issued on behalf of Vicedomini one can find his small seal while archdeacon Andrej obviously confirmed his documents with his own seal. Based on the different types of documents the role of archdeacon Andrej can be determined.
At this point we must point to an important fact that the available information on the functioning of the Esztergom archdiocesan tribunal – the simultaneous but territorially remote use of great and small seals or the tasks of vicar’s deputy at the court – indicate a great similarity between the functioning of this institution and the system of secular courts. Obviously, the functioning of secular institutions was much more complex and required a more numerous apparatus. At that time the administration of vicar’s court seemed to be less formalized that the then developed system of secular courts. The number of scribes of vicarial documents issued in Esztergom in that period, if it can be derived from handwriting, confirms a greater number of employed scribes or notaries than the three known persons holding the licence of public notary. This also unequivocally confirms that even if a greater number of notaries simultaneously held the licence of public notary at the archbishop’s court, there was always only one public notary (notarius publicus) in charge of the court’s staff.
Even more interesting finding occurred while examining the question from which parts of the kingdom the lawsuits at vicar Vicedomini’s court came. Theoretically, they can be divided into three groups: first degree suits (from the Esztergom archdiocese itself), second degree suits (appeals from other diocesan tribunals of the Esztergom archbishopric) or third degree suits (since the archbishop of Esztergom also served as the Primate, from the turn of 15th century he received appeals from the courts of the Kalocsa archdiocese).
To sum up, the research of the documents issued by the tribunal within the tenure of Matteo Vicedomini was interesting. The examined issues – such as the use of vicar’s seals or the types of lawsuits at his court – occurred in the older publications, too. However, these works were summarizing rather than analytical.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 46-64 © Verbum 2015
David PAPAJÍK: O výchově a vzdělávání krále Ladislava Pohrobka / On the Education and Training of King Ladislaus the Posthumous

KEYWORDS: history, Ladislaus the Posthumous, Frederick III Habsburg, Eneas Silvius Piccolomini, royal education
ABSTRACT: The author analyzes the education and training of the Hungarian and Bohemian king Ladislaus the Posthumous at the court of the Roman-German king Frederick III Habsburg in 1440-1452. He examines not only a thin collection of the accounts of Ladislaus’ training and his teachers, but also the work by Enea Silvio Piccolomini on the education of children that was written directly for Ladislaus the Posthumous in 1450. Besides this theoretical education, the author also deals with the practical side of Ladislaus’ training by way of an example of the imperial coronation journey to Rome in 1451-1452, in which Ladislaus took part.
The author analyzes the education and training of the Hungarian and Bohemian king Ladislaus the Posthumous at the court of the Roman-German king (and from March 1452 Emperor) Frederick III Hasburg in 1440-1452. Ladislaus’ education was negatively affected by the fact that his father Albert V Habsburg had died before Ladislaus’ birth and his mother Elisabeth of Luxembourg followed him in 1442 when the child was less than three years of age. Thus, Ladislaus grew without his parents and virtually in a strange environment at the court of his very thrifty and even tight-fisted guardian Frederick III. The author examines not only a thin collection of the accounts of Ladislaus’ training and his teachers, but also the work by Enea Silvio Piccolomini on education De institutione liberorum (On the Education of Children) that was written directly for Ladislaus the Posthumous in 1450. Although it is not quite clear to what extent Ladislaus’ teachers followed the recommendations of Enea Silvio Piccolomini, the latter’s work shows a contemporary vision of education at royal courts of that time. Apparently, Ladislaus’ education was conducted in the spirit of what Enea Silvio had written, either directly under the influence of his work or independently of it.
Further, the author briefly deals with Ladislaus’ visitors at the court of his Habsburg relative. In addition to his theoretical education, the author also pays attention to the practical side of Ladislaus’ training by way of an example of the imperial coronation journey to Rome in 1451-1452, in which Ladislaus took part. The author comes to the conclusion that practical information, e.g. how the royal court worked, how the court festivities were held, the ceremonial entries of rulers into cities, etc., were as important for Ladislaus’ education as the theoretical training by his teachers. Hardly any future monarch being as young as Ladislaus at his age of twelve had the opportunity to meet at several private audiences popes and cardinals and to explore ancient monuments of Rome and other Italian cities. Despite all the problems connected with the education of Ladislaus the Posthumous, it can be taken as proved that his both theoretical and practical education was at a high level.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 65-86 © Verbum 2015
Nikoleta DZURIKANINOVÁ: Stanovy ako prameň k činnosti spolkov v období dualizmu (príklad mesta Košice) / Statutes as a Primary Source in Studying Associations’ Activities in the Era of Dualism (Example of the City of Košice)

KEYWORDS: Slovakia, history, Košice, association, statutes, dualism, analysis, 19th century
ABSTRACT: The number of associations in the era of dualism was growing rapidly in Košice as well as in Hungary. Statutes constitute an important primary source for the research of an association’s life. the regulation by the Minister of interior no. 1508/1875 ordered the associations to write their statutes and send them to the Minister of interior for acceptance. thus, the statutes were the first documents made by associations. Based on this primary source it is possible to study the creation, character and functioning of every association of that time. The aim of the paper is to analyze the statutes of associations in Košice in the era of dualism and to present possibilities of the research based on these statutes. By way of an example of the selected type of associations and the selected information excerpted from the statutes, the paper also presents the character of the city.
In the second half of the 19th century Hungary witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of associations. While in 1862 there were only 579 societies, in 1878 as many as 3,995 associations already existed in the country. The city of Košice closely followed the country-wide trend. While in 1852 the city had only three associations, in 1896 there were already 62 societies in Košice. In addition, by World War i several more organizations were established, resulting in an even greater increase in the number and variety of the city’s associations. An important source for the research of associational life is represented by the statutes of individual societies. According to the ministerial regulation no. 1508/1875, each society prior to its functioning had to send its statutes to the minister. only after their approval an association was considered to be officially established.
In case of Košice, the paper introduces a multistage classification. First, the city associations were divided into six groups: “beneficent, cultural and social, financial, religious, sport, and professional.” According to a particular activity, the beneficent societies divide into benefit-auxiliary, self-educational, sickness benefit-nursing, beneficent-charitable, and funeral societies. According to membership within a group, there were e.g. craftsman-expert associations, societies for “intelligentsia” or women’s, Jewish or roman Catholic associations.
The cultural and social associations were also divided. according to their activities there were singers’ and music societies, readers’, literary, social-conversational, public enlightenment organizations, and according to social classification there were civic, national-Hungarian, Catholic, women’s societies and associations for “intelligentsia”. Financial organizations are segmented solely on the basis of their activities into public limited companies; banks, saving banks, credit companies; and economic companies. Sport societies deal with particular sports: horse racing, hunting, shooting, cycling, exercise, various competitions. Professional associations have just two subdivisions based on a particular profession: craftsmanexpert associations and societies for “intelligentsia”. Since the associations in this group, just as in that of religious organizations, do not engage in any side activities, their classification is easier. While professional societies unite members of a certain craft of profession, religious organizations care for the growth of religious life. The above mentioned classification is more precise in terms of description of the situation in the city as well because it specifically depicts in what activities respective groups of population were interested. Activities of individual societies are closely connected to their goals. However, besides activities in accordance with their objectives, the associations often conducted side activities, such as publishing books and annuals, organizing lectures and various parades and meetings, depending on the type of organization. A frequent form of activities was arrangement of folk and gypsy dances and various theatre performances, variety show evenings, concerts and other performances.
The data on general meetings inform on how often and where these meetings were held or what was their agenda. The examined documents show that the meetings mostly took place once a year and they were announced in newspapers several weeks in advance.
In conclusion the paper presents one of research possibilities by way of an example of the associations in the city of Košice. The associational life in the city in the era of dualism was diverse. Most frequent were beneficent, professional, and cultural and social societies. They were followed by financial organizations while the lowest interest was in sport and religious associations. associational activities attracted various groups of population, as is shown by way of an example of beneficent societies. Charitable issues were of most interest to the Jewish population while the Catholics mostly engaged in benefit societies. Craftsmen belonged to almost all beneficent organizations: benefit, self-educational, sickness benefit-nursing as well as funeral while the Košice “intelligentsia” only to benefit societies.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 87-99 © Verbum 2015
Sidonius Apollinaris: Pôžitky vidieckej vily v neskororímskej Galii, Ep. 2.2 / Sidonius Apollinaris: Pleasures of a Rural Villa in Later Roman Gaul, Ep. 2.2

KEYWORDS: history, Late Antiquity, Romans, architecture, Sidonius Appollinaris
ABSTRACT: Sidonius Appollinaris’ Epistula 2.2 is one of the best known letters of this 5th century A.D. Gallic Roman aristocrat. In his letter Sidonius invites his friend Domitius to spend a summer holiday in his rural villa called Avitacum, located in all probability in modern Aydat in the Auvergne, France. He describes the layout of the villa as well as the pleasures that are at visitors’ disposal. In the paper the author introduces the historical and philological context of the letter. The main objective of the paper is to provide a modern translation of this letter for Slovak readers.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 100-106 © Verbum 2015
Rozhovor s docentom Antonom Laučekom: „Elimináciou humanitných vied dochádza k odľudšťovaniu spoločnosti“ / Interview with Doc. Anton Lauček: “Elimination of humanities leads to the dehumanization of society”

ABSTRACT: Doc. PaedDr. Anton Lauček, PhD. (born in 1950 in the Liptov village of Černová) is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Žilina in Žilina. In his research he deals with the theory and history of literature and journalism. He received his qualifications from the Faculty of Arts, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice (1985), Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica (2004) and the Catholic University in Ružomberok (2011). He is an author of scholarly publications Katolícka moderna (2003), Slovenská literatúra pre deti a mládež 1990 – 2004 (2004), Výrobný román 1950 – 1955 (2004), Schéma a dogma v literatúre (2006), Schematická reportáž Ferdinanda Gabaja (2008), Schéma a dogma v literatúre II (2011), Slovenské pohľady v službe totalitnej moci 1948 – 1951 (2013) etc. In addition, he is dedicated to writing fiction. For instance, he is an author of a historical novella on the Černová massacre entitled Cez utrpenie (1997), a biographic novel on Bishop Vojtaššák Anjelom svojim prikážem o tebe (2000), a schoolbased novel titled Keď lastovičky nemôžu lietať (2006) or an in the Slovak literature unique humourous wartime novel Pušky v hrnci, granáty v kredenci (1993). In recent years, he has published a series of books entitled Iba tak I-V. They contain short fiction and publiscistic texts very popular among readers, in most cases responding with a smile to various things concerning ordinary people. Lauček’s themes have often been inspired by history. It is his source of knowledge and wisdom. The interview is being published on the occasion of his 65th anniversary.


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 107-129 © Verbum 2015
Recenzie / Reviews

Emanuel Jirkal, L. Caelius Firmianus Lactantius. O smrti prenasledovateľov. Rímske impérium na ceste od tradičných kultov ku kresťanstvu (Marek Babic) (p. 107)
Ivan Gerát, Legendary Scenes. An Essay on Medieval Pictorial Hagiography (Štefan Valášek) (p. 109)
Diana Duchoňová, Palatín Mikuláš Esterházy a jeho dvor. Spoločnosť, normy, rituály každodennosti (František Koreň) (p. 114)
Anna Corethová, Pietas Austriaca. Fenomén rakouské barokní zbožnosti (Peter Volek) (p. 116)
Ivan Kamenec, Tragédia politika, kňaza a človeka. Dr. Jozef Tiso, 1887 – 1947 (Martin Lupčo) (p. 119)
Karol Fremal, Slovenskí sociálni demokrati 1938 – 1944. Sociálnodemokratická strana na Slovensku v odboji a SNP (Roland Valko) (p. 122)
Gabriela Múcsková - Katarína Muziková - Viera Wambach, Praktická dialektológia (vysokoškolská príručka na nárečovú interpretáciu) (Viera Kováčová) (p. 124)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 130-150 © Verbum 2015
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Jacques Le Goff, O hranicích dějinných období. Na příkladu strědověku a renesance (Monika Tatáriková) (p. 130)
Ľubomír Jankovič, Inkunábuly – umenie európskych knižných tvorcov 15. storočia v zbierke Slovenskej národnej knižnice (-red.-) (p. 131)
Tomáš Klokner a kol, Až za hranicu oikumeny : Aktuálne otázky z dejín a kultúry antického staroveku (Katarína Furdáková) (p. 133)
Pavol Valachovič - Michal Habaj, Staroveké civilizácie: Chetiti a Peržania (René Vladár) (p. 135)
Templársky rád v Európe v kontexte historického vývoja Žilinského kraja : zborník zo sympózia, ed. Jaroslav Velička a kol. (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 136)
Ferdinand Uličný, Dejiny Slovenska v 11. až 13. storočí (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 137)
Jacek Kowalski - Tomasz Ratajczak (red.), Międzypanem a plebanem. Wieś, miasto, władzaświecka i duchowna w kulturze średniowiecznej Europy (Štefan Valášek) (p. 138)
James Maxwell Anderson, Daily life during the Reformation (Barbora Protušová) (p. 140)
Rastislav Molda, Cestopisné denníky štúrovcov (Michal Čakloš) (p. 141)
Guido Knopp, Hitler : pět tváří jeho osobnosti (Kristína Kecsöová) (p. 142)
Dagmar Hilarová, Nemám žiadne meno : autobiografia ženy uväznenej v Terezíne (Michaela Šefranková) (p. 143)
Jozef Tancer, Neviditeľné mesto. Prešporok / Bratislava v cestopisnej literatúre (Anna Smreková) (p. 144)
Zdeněk Pokluda, Baťa v kostce (Milan Stehlík) (p. 146)
Historická demografie, 2014, roč. 38, č. 1 a 2 (Ján Golian) (p. 147)
Aero, roč. 1, č. 1 (2014) : Miroslav Šnajdr, Vickers Wellington Mk. I. a Aero; roč. 1, č. 2 (2014) : Miroslav Irra, Avia S/CS-92 - Me 262 v československém letectvu (Matej Tatarka) (p. 149)
Acta historica Neosoliensia. Vedecký časopis pre historické vedy, 17/2014, č. 1-2 (Jaroslav Nemeš) (p. 150)


Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 151-162 © Verbum 2015
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 163-167 © Verbum 2015
Internetové odkazy / Web links

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 168-169 © Verbum 2015
Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 170 © Verbum 2015
Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

 

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