- Kategória: Rok 2014
- Uverejnené: sobota, 22. november 2014, 22:39
Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles
Juraj DVORSKÝ: Literárnovedné koncepty pamäti / Literary-Scientifi Concepts of Memory (pp. 176-186)
Andreea MÂRZA: Ignác Batthyány a Imrich Dániel : okolnosti založenia historickej knižnice v Alba Iulii / Ignac Batthyany and Imre Daniel : Circumstances of the Establishment of the Historical Library in Alba Iulia (pp. 187-196)
Ján GOLIAN: Vybrané rodinné zvyky v slovenskej vidieckej spoločnosti na prelome 19. a 20. storočia (na príklade Podpoľania) / Selected Family Customs in the Slovak Rural Society at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries (by Way of Example of the Podpoľanie Region) (pp. 197-220)
Diskusie, polemiky / Discussions, Polemics
Helena VELIČKOVÁ: Pohled grafologie na osobnost mladého uherského a českého panovníka Ladislava Pohrobka / The Personality of the Young Hungarian and Bohemian Monarch, Ladislaus Posthumous, from the Perspective of Graphology (pp. 222-237)
Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations
Lampert z Hersfeldu : Veľké nemecké putovanie do Jeruzalema v rokoch 1064 – 1065 / Lambert of Hersfeld : The Great German Pilgrimage to Jerusalem of 1064–1065 (pp. 238-251)
Rozhovory / Interviews
Rozhovor s profesorem Milošem Traplem: „Působení na univerzitě je dnes svobodnější.“ / Interview with Prof. Miloš Trapl: “Work at the University is Now Freer” (pp. 252-259)
Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 260-282)
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 283-305)
Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 306-327)
Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 328-335)
Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors (pp. 336-337)
Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement (p. 338)
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 176-186 © Verbum 2014
Juraj DVORSKÝ: Literárnovedné koncepty pamäti / Literary-Scientifi Concepts of Memory
Keywords: history, literature, individual and collective memory, reminiscence
ABSTRACT: Currently, the conceptualisation of the relations between literature and memory is very diverse. It can be studied on the background of intertextuality, topics, canon, metaphor, and/or from the perspective of the question how to construct the memories as a narrative. A link between literature and time plays an important role, especially in autobiographic memory. A systemic theory, cognitive psychology, gender studies and media studies belong to the latest theoretical approaches concerned with literature and memory. Contemporary interdisciplinary memory research deals with a question: to what extent can the examined phenomena be classifid? Because of this, my paper has a systemic nature. It evaluates the link between literature and memory on the background of three concepts: the memory of literature, memory in literature and literature as a medium of memory.
Within the cognitive-psychological research of organic human memory, the term “memory” is defied a reservoir of information. On the other hand, the term “reminiscence” is perceived as a process of activation of the parts of this reservoir, i.e. the process of recollecting. Thus, the basic relationship here seems to be an interconnection between individual and collective memory, because the information which is not received and explained through individual consciousness cannot produce any activity. The collective acts of recalling without individual updates vanish in emptiness.
In addition, cognitive psychology distinguishes several systems of memory. The conscious reminiscences are updated either through “semantic” or “episodic” memory. Semantic memory involves learned, symbolic knowledge (e.g. the Earth is round). Episodic memory is linked to a specifi time and context (e.g. the memories of the fist day at school). Obviously, this does not rule out the temporal-contextual linkage of semantic memory as well. Besides explicit memory, there is also “implicit” memory in cognitive psychology. The latter involves the reminiscences that can be recalled unconsciously. These include procedural memory which allows us to perform certain activities automatically, such as riding a bike or playing the piano. Through the senses, the human body can also implicitly “recall” past events. For instance, the smell can bring back memories of childhood, either pleasant or traumatic. There are no strict boundaries among semantic, episodic and procedural memory and they are applicable within both individual and collective memory.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 187-196 © Verbum 2014
Andreea MÂRZA: Ignác Batthyány a Imrich Dániel : okolnosti založenia historickej knižnice v Alba Iulii / Ignac Batthyany and Imre Daniel : Circumstances of the Establishment of the Historical Library in Alba Iulia
Keywords: Batthyány Ignác, Dániel Imre, library, trip to Italy, correspondence, diary
ABSTRACT: The hereby study uses as a starting point the beginnings of one of the most interesting libraries in Transylvania: the Batthyaneum Library from Alba Iulia, dating back to the 18th century. The name of this cultural institution is connected to its founder, Ignác Batthyány. But when we talk about the present library, reference must also be made to its fist librarian, Dániel Imre.
The information gathered concerning the beginning of the relationship between the Bishop of Transylvania and his future librarian have taken us back to the year 1780 so far; but future research will undoubtedly provide new insights into this relationship which may have started in the late 70’s of the 18th century. Both personalities have benefied from it: the Bishop received valuable information related to the libraries and the books from the Italian Peninsula, where he had sent Dániel Imre, and the latter built his entire intellectual career on the fiancial support offered by his patron, Batthyány – both in Vienna and in Italy.
The bishop’s library continued to grow even after his death in 1798, but it did not change its location and is still housed in the building he had bought for this purpose.
In 1780 Empress Maria Theresa appointed Ignác Batthyány as Roman-Catholic bishop of Transylvania; this decision was benefiial to scientifi activity in this part of the Habsburg Empire. Ignác Batthyány, interested as he was in studying the history of Hungary and Transylvania, among other things, ever since his student years, tried to continue his investigations on these topics while fulfiling his bishop duties; nevertheless, due to lack of enough time, he had to turn to different persons that would research these topics for him.
The most help he received from a Catholic Armenian from Elisabethopolis/ Dumbrăveni, who was studying in Vienna during the 1770s and 1780s. According to the latest research, Imre Dániel (1754 – 1804) entered the bishop’s tutelage even before the latter’s appointment in Transylvania, since in 1780 they already exchanged letters on a complex research topic; Dániel had the task of copying a manuscript from St. Gerhard’s works so that Batthyány could prepare an edition of it. The edited volume was fiished soon afterwards, but it was only published in 1790. This was the fist academic contact between prelate Batthyány and student Dániel.
The ties between the two soon intensifid, also due to the fact that Dániel extended his stay in Vienna and Batthyány became bishop of Transylvania, thus rather far away from the European academic world. He nevertheless attempted to elevate science in Transylvania by endowing the city of Alba Carolina / Alba Iulia with a library, an astronomical observatory, a scientifi society, and, later on, a printing house. The correspondence between the two men focused on books, either manuscript or printed. Dániel was the one to inform the bishop on the fact that Cardinal Migazzi’s library was for sale and thus Batthyány was able to buy it; Dániel also acquired books for the bishop, informed him on the latest publications, etc. The most important element in their professional relation was the fact that the bishop sent Dániel on a research trip to Italy between 1783 and 1785. He was thus charged with researching and copying data on the history of Hungary and Transylvania that Batthyány knew where to locate, in the libraries and archives of several Italian cities. During his two-year-long stay in the peninsula Dániel copied thousands of document pages and kept an academic diary that provides interesting data on Italy in the end of the eighteenth century, ranging from description of public squares, libraries, buildings, and monasteries to presentations of bookshops, churches, his own itineraries, etc.
All these pieces of information contained in the correspondence between bishop Batthyány and Dániel and in the latter’s diary make research especially interesting. As a reward for his services, the prelate soon appointed Dániel as librarian of the library he established in Alba Carolina, but, in time, the relation between the two turned cold and Dániel left the bishop’s service. Nevertheless, he remains the fist librarian of the future Batthyaneum Library.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 197-220 © Verbum 2014
Ján GOLIAN: Vybrané rodinné zvyky v slovenskej vidieckej spoločnosti na prelome 19. a 20. storočia (na príklade Podpoľania) / Selected Family Customs in the Slovak Rural Society at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries (by Way of Example of the Podpoľanie Region)
Keywords: Slovakia, family customs, marriage, Christening, funeral, Podpoľanie
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the issues of family customs in the traditional area of Slovak folk culture – the Podpoľanie region. In this region, from which the lines offorce of Slovak folklore have constantly emanated, the traditional manifestations of family customs have cumulated. In a number of thematized characters one can fid a very close connection with the related characteristics in other regions of Slovak rural society. On the other hand, there are also quite specifi and original folklore symptoms in Podpoľanie. The entering into marriage, birth of a child and death of a member of the community would largely be connected with the manifestations of folk piety and elements of ethnic folklore. The population, which in the late 19th century was considered the archetype of Slovaks, was undoubtedly a bearer of the Slovak population’s cultural wealth, of which only a fraction has survived in practice to these days.
The Podpoľanie region’s traditions related to births, marriages and deaths constitute a signifiant part of the Slovak population’s family customs. The local population had been affected by the peculiar landscape and the genesis of specifi terminology, musical and clothing culture or the manifestations of folk piety confim the uniqueness and signifiance of the Detva region. The fact, that the latter can be associated with Slovak peculiarity, traditions or authenticity, is being proved by the customs that one can fid in other traditional regions of Upper Hungary as well. In Podoľanie, however, many of them had even been refied in an original way and by this originality have earned a special place in Slovak folk culture.
The wealth of family traditions and customs has intrigued a number of visitors of this central Slovak region. Besides the summarizing view by K. A. Medvecký, the Detva region has been repeatedly seen as a symbol of Slovak and traditional character. Podpoľanie has been thematized by several observers since the half of the 19th century (B. Němcová, P. Dobšinský). The interest in its inhabitants as bearers of traditional folk culture culminated during the fist Czechoslovak Republic (J. Hrebíček, R. Bednárik, M. Leščák). Today, perhaps only by means of rescue ethnographic probes, one can more deeply explore such challenging and yet so captivating theme as the everyday life of Detva families in the past.
Being a part of the traditional rural society, Podpoľanie has enriched the knowledge we have from other Slovak regions. The insight into the inner structure of the young people’s groups, their relationships and contacts reflcted mainly in joint amusement, dance parties and games, gives an idea of the traditional and widespread ways of social life in the country. The local differences between the town of Detva and surrounding mountain settlements (lazy) were markedly reflcted in social differentiation resulting in the strict and frequent endogamy occurring in Podpoľanie even in the half of the last century. The specifi terminology and intrasocial language of local communities had made the local culture quite different from that of any other Slovak region. Here one can also fid the roots of the Detva character that has been viewed as something traditional and yet, in its conditions, unique.
When analyzing the family customs in Podpoľanie, their originality can also be seen in a wide palette of various festive meals. A number of them were related to the family celebrations and events. Pig-slaughter meals or pastries, either sweet or salty, were inseparably connected with wedding parties and they were served not only to the invited guests, but also to the passers-by. Some of the wedding games or ceremonies were closely associated with Christianity and were based on Biblical stories, even though several of them contained elements of superstition from even the pre-Christian period or of the sympathetic magic. An original phenomenon occurring in central Slovakia is the mention of cutting the bride’s hair before putting a bonnet on her head. Perhaps, the initial vague formulation by Medvecký was later clarifid and re-interpreted in terms of practical reasons associated with putting a bonnet on head.
With Detva’s mountain settlements being scattered, the local midwives could not frequently reach the women in labour. Two midwives were simply not enough for the vast territory. Therefore, there were also so called helpers, i.e. women who, despite being not qualifid, assisted with childbirths. In the paper, there are several contemporary descriptions of Detva cemetery and interpretations of funeral ceremonies. Although the farewell with the deceased (odberanka) was not confied to the Podpoľanie region, it is here where its unique extracts have been preserved. Podpoľanie and its folk culture still constitute a phenomenon that is well-known to general public and evokes the emotion of originality and quality. May the presented family customs of this region help complete its image in the areas that are still not well known.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 222-237 © Verbum 2014
Helena VELIČKOVÁ: Pohled grafologie na osobnost mladého uherského a českého panovníka Ladislava Pohrobka / The Personality of the Young Hungarian and Bohemian Monarch, Ladislaus Posthumous, from the Perspective of Graphology
Keywords: Ladislav Pohrobek, signatures, graphology, psychical evolution, personality
ABSTRACT: Ladislaus Posthumous, King of Bohemia in 1453–1457, lived only seventeen years and probably died of leukaemia. Since the chronicles bring inconsistent information on his behaviour during his puppet reign, historians are not sure of his character. He used to sign documents declaring his royal will. The following handwriting analysis of his nineteen signatures of documents, coming from various archives and museums in Europe, brings an unusual perspective on his personality. Signature has a special value in graphology: it represents its author and brings a graphic picture of the king´s ego. Signatures done during Ladislaus´ reign show his personality evolution, too.
The signatures by Ladislaus Posthumous show us a comparatively fast evolution of the young Bohemian king´s psyche within four years (1453–1457). He was enthroned as an intelligent teenager, used to pretence and profiient in hypocrisy. As a boy, he suffered under Frederick III´s yoke and his psyche was deeply affected. Ladislaus could hardly believe or love somebody. His behaviour seemed very changeable. The king was unconfient but ambitious, and spared no effort in putting his best foot forward. He avoided conflcts and played dirty tricks to defend himself or to push his personal interests through. He was not ready to bear responsibility. In addition, he often suffered from pains and was never healthy and strong. His puppet rule rested on diplomacy and intrigues. In 1457 his health aggravated and he often suffered from depressions. The king´s signatures bring a proof that the chroniclers´ information is not quite true. They insist on his having been healthy until two or three days before his death. However, his disease must have lasted much longer and he probably knew it, because his mind was full of morbid thoughts and meditations on fate.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 238-251 © Verbum 2014
Lampert z Hersfeldu : Veľké nemecké putovanie do Jeruzalema v rokoch 1064 – 1065 / Lambert of Hersfeld : The Great German Pilgrimage to Jerusalem of 1064–1065
Keywords: Middle Ages, history, 11th century, religious pilgrimage, Lambert of Hersfeld
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the great German pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1064–1065 attended by several thousands of pilgrims. They were led by eminent religious and secular dignitaries, such as archbishop Siegfried of Mainz and bishops Gunther of Bamberg, Otto of Ratisbon (modern-day Regensburg) and William of Utrecht. Many pilgrims never returned home. Therefore, this tragic journey signifiantly affected the character of following pilgrimages. It introduced the need for systematic work on the physical protection of pilgrims as well as for securing social and health care for them. The great pilgrimage was also depicted by Lambert, a contemporary chronicler and monk of the Benedictine Abbey of Hersfeld, in Hesse. He compiled his major work entitled Annals in 1077–1079. It well reflcted his flir for dramatic depiction of stories.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 252-259 © Verbum 2014
Rozhovor s profesorem Milošem Traplem: „Působení na univerzitě je dnes svobodnější.“ / Interview with Prof. Miloš Trapl: “Work at the University is Now Freer”
ABSTRACT: Historian Miloš Trapl was born in Hustopeče near Brno on 15 January 1935. After his graduation from the secondary grammar school in Brno, his family moved to Olomouc. After fiishing his studies he worked at the regional archival administration of the Ministry of Interior in Olomouc. In 1960–1964 he worked in the Museum of National History in Olomouc. On 1 September 1964 he became a lecturer at the Department of History of the Faculty of Arts, Palacký University in Olomouc. There he primarily worked at the Section of Regional History. In 1966 he was conferred the degrees of candidate of history and PhDr. In 1977 he became a senior lecturer of Czechoslovak history and in 1997 he was appointed professor at the Masaryk University in Brno. Prof. M. Trapl is an author and co-author of more than 500 books, papers and articles. He is one of the greatest experts on the history of the fist Czechoslovak Republic. In addition, he has intensively dealt with the history of the Czechoslovak People’s Party, history of exile and regional history. He is one of three main authors of the monumental Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960 [Historical Topography of Moravia and Silesia in 1848–1960] in 17 volumes that has been written for fity years.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 260-282 © Verbum 2014
Recenzie / Reviews
Juraj Šedivý - Tatiana Štefanovičová (eds.), Dejiny Bratislavy 1 : od počiatkov do prelomu 12. a 13. storočia. Brezalauspurc na križovatke kultúr (Miroslav Huťka) (p. 260)
Mikuláš Kubínyi, Imrich Thurzo (František Koreň) (p. 265)
Hana Jordánková - Vladimír Maňas (eds.), Jezuité a Brno : sociální a kulturní interakce koleje a města (1578 – 1773) (Jaroslav Nemeš) (p. 268)
Ivona Kollárová, Slobodný vydavateľ, mysliaci čitateľ. Typografié médium v jozefínskej dobe (Eva Kowalská) (p. 270)
Pavel Marek - Marek Šmíd, Arcibiskup František Kordač. Nástin života a díla apologety, pedagoga a politika (Martin Zückert) (p. 272)
Mýty naše slovenské, eds. Eduard Krekovič - Elena Mannová - Eva Krekovičová (Ján Golian) (p. 274)
Jaromír Kubíček, Dějiny žurnalistiky na Moravě. První století českých časopisů 1848 – 1948 (Lukáš F. Peluněk) (p. 277)
Nils Ivar Agoy, Kirken og arbeiderbevegelsen. Spenninger, skuffelser, hap. Tiden for 1940 (Pavol Jakubec) (p. 280)
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 283-305 © Verbum 2014
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books
Vladimír Rábik - Peter Labanc - Martin Tibenský, Historická geografi (Lukáš Tkáč) (p. 283)
Milan Ducháček, Václav chaloupecký. Hledání československých dějin (Eliška Kozarcová) (p. 284)
Martin Čapský, Zrození země (Monika Tatáriková) (p. 284)
Kronika Slovanů / Helmold z Bosau, ed. Jan Zdichynec (Zuzana Melegová) (p. 285)
Anna Whitelock, The Queen’s Bed : An Intimate History of Elizabeth’s court (Veronika Selepková) (p. 288)
Elaine Leong - Alisha Rankin (eds.), Secrets and Knowledge in Medicine and Science, 1500–1800 (Lenka Šupková) (p. 289)
Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500–1800, ed. Brian L. Davies (Tomáš Pastucha) (p. 191)
Slováci pri budovaní základov Československej republiky. Prvé desaťročie Československej republiky (Michal Marťák) (p. 292)
Anton Hruboň - Juraj Krištofík (eds.), Partizáni a Slovensko (Matej Maruniak) (p. 293)
Sila svedectva. The Power of Witnessing, eds. Martina Fiamová - Jana Speváková (Barbora Protušová) (p. 294)
Pavel Kosatík, Tigrid, poprvé. Průvodce osudem inteligentního muže ve dvacátem století (Igor Strnisko) (p. 295)
Angelika Šrámková, Ľudovít Bazovský – nezlomný rodák slovenský? (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 296)
Matej Bel, Trenčianska stolica, eds. Martin Turóci - Imrich Nagy (Daniela Nazadová) (p. 297)
Iva Mojžišová, Škola moderného videnia. Bratislavská ŠuR 1928 – 1939 (Peter Klempa) (p. 298)
Igor Machajdík, Športové hry starej Bratislavy. Fenomén športu v mestskom prostredí do roku 1938 (Igor Strnisko) (p. 301)
Vratislav Doubek - Rudolf Kučera, Strěd / centre. umění přesvědčit. Agitace a propaganda v českých zemích 1890 – 1938 (Michal Čakloš) (p. 304)
Acta historica Neosoliensia. Vedecký časopis pre historické vedy, 16/2013, č. 1-2 (Jaroslav Nemeš) (p. 305)
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 306-327 © Verbum 2014
Správy, referáty / Brief notices
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 328-335 © Verbum 2014
Internetové odkazy / Web links
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 336-337 © Verbum 2014
Pokyny pre autorov / Guidelines for contributors
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 5, Issue 2, p. 338 © Verbum 2014
Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement