02/2012

2012-02

OBSAH / CONTENTS

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Beata WOJCIECHOWSKA: Excommunication in the Late Medieval Poland / Exkomunikácia v neskorostredovekom Poľsku (pp. 176-197)

Filip LAMPART: Súdny súboj v spišskom práve / Judicial Duel in the Spiš Law (pp. 198-212)

David PAPAJÍK: Univerzita v Olomouci a její osudy v průběhu staletí / University in Olomouc and Its Fate over the Centuries (pp. 213-228)

Lukáš RENDEK: K stavu kampanologického výskumu na Slovensku (s dôrazom na východné Slovensko) / On the State of Campanological Research in Slovakia (with Emphasis on Eastern Slovakia) (pp. 229-252)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations

Pavol MIKLOVIČ: František Xaverský Eder : Opis provincie Moxov v Peruánskom kráľovstve / Franciscus Xavier Eder : The Description of the Province of Moxos in the Peruvian Kingdom (pp. 253-271)

Rozhovory / Interviews

Rozhovor s doktorom bohoslovia Andrijom Michalejkom: Náš archív obsahuje 1 929 rozhovorov s pamätníkmi / Interview with Doctor of Theology Andriy Mykhaleyko: Our Archive Contains 1,929 Interviews with “Old Timers” (pp. 272-276)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 277-296)

Anotácie, nové knihy /Annotations, New books (pp. 297-318)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 319-332)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 333-338)


ABSTRAKTY

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 176-197 © Verbum 2012
Beata WOJCIECHOWSKA: Excommunication in the Late Medieval Poland / Exkomunikácia v neskorostredovekom Poľsku

KEYWORDS: Poland, Middle Ages, excommunication, ecclesiastical curse, canon law 
ABSTRACT: The sanction of excommunication in the 13th century was often used by the Polish church hierarchy, which was focused on gaining economic independence, protection of Church property and organization of judicature independent from princely authority. Excommunication was a means by which the Church imposed and exacted its norms of law which referred to religious and intimate life, and many aspects of public life. In the 14th and 15th centuries, excommunication was applied almost universally. In the normative literature of the Church, the catalogue of respective matters was unusually long. In practice, however, on the Polish territories it was primarily imposed for tithe debts, for not fulfilling financial liabilities in kind for the benefit of parsons, other clergy or laymen, for transgressions in legal procedure, violation of clergymen’s estates. It was imposed more seldom in matrimonial matters, including even adultery and bigamy; however, it was imposed exceptionally for practising usury. It was not imposed for offences of moral nature. In religious life a great importance was attached to the duty of yearly confession and communication in the period of Easter. In case of heavy sins (manslaughter, rape, robbery, arson), which were crimes according to secular law, excommunication accompanied secular punishment and release from excommunication was to be preceded by a special ritual of public penance.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 198-212 © Verbum 2012
Filip LAMPART: Súdny súboj v spišskom práve / Judicial Duel in the Spiš Law

KEYWORDS: judicial duel, medieval ordeals, Zipser Willkühr, Spiš, history of law, medieval culture, fighting in a duel
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the interpretation of a judicial duel in the law code of the Spiš Saxons – Zipser Willkühr. The aim of the paper is to introduce its changed perception, not as means of proof in ordeals but as a form of retribution (punishment) for sustained monetary and health loss. After introduction into the issue of ordeals, the whole text of the norm is being subject to analysis and interpretation of individual phrases. Subject to analysis are causes of duel, fighting tools – weapons, course and outcome of duel and supervision of the court over dispute. Findings are compared with knowledge of scholarly literature. The outcome of the paper should be an image of divine ordeal in the medieval law and society.
The issue of the trial of ordeals can be described as quite interesting topic of historical research. However in Slovak historiography there is still a little interest in ordeals, and if authors are discussing them, they generalize their findings and deal only a little with concrete form of exam.
Judicial duels represent specific form of legal settlement which demands partial research. Outcome of this process should be a complex picture of this phenomenon. To reach some conclusions we need to analyze all legal regulations connected to judicial duels. Recently for completion of this analysis there has been chosen legal regulation of judicial duels in the Spiš law (Zipser Willkühr). Analysis of normative representation of judicial duel in Zipser Willkühr leads to opinion that it is surviving relic of ordeals.
Content of analyzed norm points out changed perception of this legal act. It is not possible to discern a reference to the involvement of clergy in the process. Supervision over the course of the legal act include representatives of the secular power – count of the Spiš Saxons and two mayors of province cities of the Spiš Saxons. Also a brief statement of factual reason does not indicate the cause of this duel as ordeal but rather as method of repaying for wrongs committed. Duelists fight in the duel by weapons corresponding to lower social classes. Accuser should fight with club and shield, defendants fighting tool is stick. The prescription of club and shield weapons having in Franconian background tradition in early Middle Ages, it point to the origin of this legal act in this area. Norm by following regulations governs the course of duel. Emphasizes that no third party should get involved in duel. Warns duelists against altering their fighting weapons and so on. Nevertheless certain aspects which usually accompany the conduct of battle are absent. Firstly there is an oath. Because of its severity it cannot be excluded by custom. There is a similar lack of duelists dress regulation.
Zipser Willkühr is a proof that right to duel was extended on ignoble people. It is an important proof of the fact that the judicial duel is transforming from form of ordeal and its character is becoming more profane. To what extent was judicial duel really used in the Spiš area is not known. You cannot exclude the possibility that analyzed norm was never used and its practical side consisted only in its existence in Zipser Willkühr.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 213-228 © Verbum 2012
David PAPAJÍK: Univerzita v Olomouci a její osudy v průběhu staletí / University in Olomouc and Its Fate over the Centuries

KEYWORDS: Palacký University of Olomouc, universities, Jesuits, Moravia, Olomouc
ABSTRACT: The author deals with the development of the university in Olomouc from its establishment in 1573 up to the present. In the beginning, the main role in the history of the university was played by the Jesuits. In the 18th century, however, interference of the state in education began to be increasingly apparent. The state wanted to limit the Jesuits’ monopoly over education. The Jesuit period of the university was ended in 1773 by the abolition of the Jesuit order. The university in Olomouc was subsequently put under state ownership. After a brief move to Brno (1778 – 1782), the university was reduced to a lyceum, which lasted until 1827, when it was restored as a full university. The university existed until 1860, when it was abolished as a whole. A period of vain efforts for restoration followed. The restoration took place in 1946 when the renewed university in Olomouc adopted the name Palacký University after a renowned historian František Palacký. Today the Palacký University consists of eight faculties. According to the number of students, it is the third largest university in the Czech Republic, after the Charles University in Prague and Masaryk University in Brno.
The author of the paper deals with the development of the university in Olomouc from its establishment in 1573 up to the present. The main share in the establishment of the university in Olomouc is assigned to Vilém Prusinovský of Víckov, Bishop of Olomouc. It was him who called the Jesuits to Olomouc in 1566. However, he wanted them not only to preach but also teach. As early as in 1566, Jesuit college and secondary school were built in Olomouc. From the very beginning, the Jesuits in Olomouc were faced with a lack of funds. This problem became even more apparent after their protector and donator bishop Vilém Prusinovský of Víckov died in 1572. In this for the Jesuits difficult situation the most important part was played by the rector of the Jesuit college in Olomouc, Spanish Hurdato Pérez, who used his contacts in the papal and the imperial court. On 22 January 1573 Pope Gregory XIII confirmed the foundation of bishop Vilém Prusinovský of Víckov. The privilege of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II published in Vienna on 22 December 1573 is considered to be an official act of the establishment of the Jesuit college in Olomouc. Similarly as Pope Gregory XIII, Emperor also confirmed the foundation of bishop Vilém Prusinovský of Víckov. At the same time he granted the Jesuit college a right to award all academic degrees of the same validity with those awarded by the universities in Western Europe. Teaching at the Jesuit college in Olomouc was only launched in 1576 when Englishman George Warr began to lecture there on philosophy. In 1582 theology began to be taught in Olomouc. In that time the university in Olomouc consisted of two faculties: faculty of arts and letters and faculty of theology. The first university graduates completed their studies in 1578.
Only wars or plague epidemics (1585 – 1586, 1599, 1623) caused interruptions in education. At the beginning of the Thirty Years‘ War in 1619, the Jesuits were expelled from Olomouc by non-Catholics. As a result, the university ceased to exist for a short period of time. Once the non-Catholics and the Estates were defeated in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Jesuits, however, returned to Olomouc (1621) and restored teaching at the university. Another interruption of teaching occurred in 1643 – 1650 when the city was occupied by Swedish troops.
In the 18th century, interference of the state in education at the university began to be increasingly apparent. It wanted to limit the Jesuits’ monopoly over education. The Jesuit period of the university was ended in 1773 by the abolition of the Jesuit order. The university in Olomouc was subsequently put under state ownership. The period after 1773 belongs to the darkest in the history of the university. Great injustices, chaos and disputes would happen on the soil of the university. After a brief move to Brno (1778 – 1782), the university was reduced to a lyceum with limited graduation rights. This inferior position of the university had lasted until 1827, when the lyceum was promoted to a full-fledged university again. The university existed until 1860, when it was abolished as a whole. Only the faculty of theology survived.
A period of vain efforts for restoration followed. There were several reasons why the restoration of the university was not successful for a long period of time: lack of funds, disputes over the location of the university, because in Moravia, besides Olomouc, the city of Brno also claimed a university. A negative role in the matter was also played by national disputes between the Czechs and the Germans, because both groups could not agree upon whether the university should have a purely German or German-Czech character.
The restoration of the university took place only in 1946, when the renewed university in Olomouc adopted the name Palacký University after a renowned Czech historian František Palacký. A difficult period followed, in which the university long grappled with the lack of qualified pedagogues. No sooner had the university overcome this matter than it was threatened by abolition due to the education reforms along the lines of the Soviet Union. A new development of the university began after 1989, when it opened up to the world. The number of students increased rapidly. Today the Palacký University consists of eight faculties (Faculty of Arts and Letters, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Theology, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Physical Culture, Faculty of Health Sciences). According to the number of students, it is the third largest university in the Czech Republic after the Charles University in Prague and Masaryk University in Brno.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 229-252 © Verbum 2012
Lukáš RENDEK: K stavu kampanologického výskumu na Slovensku (s dôrazom na východné Slovensko) / On the State of Campanological Research in Slovakia (with Emphasis on Eastern Slovakia)

KEYWORDS: Slovakia, campanology, historiography, field research, historical bells, bell foundry craft in Prešov, sacral monuments
ABSTRACT: In Slovakia, campanology as part of epigraphy is ranked among the sciences with a specific object of study – bells. Despite the fact that the research in the field of bells and their originators in Slovakia still does not reach the level of European campanological research, its beginnings, reflected in individual scientific works and papers from the late 1960’s to the 1980’s, as well as its successful advance between 1990 and 2010, mean a move in the right direction. The main objective of the paper is to characterize and summarize the problem of historiography of campanological papers from 1945 up to the present, and to analyze its current position and prospects, as well as to suggest tendencies of its possible development in the future.
Since 1968, when the former Czechoslovakia entered the period of normalization tendencies and conditions, thanks to Juraj Spiritza campanology had sought and forced an increasing attention within the historical science in Slovakia. In that period, it was only Juraj Spiritza who dealt with campanology. In the times of socialism, campanology was not given much space, mainly for the social reservations, as well as in consequence of the policy of the Communist regime after 1948, largely determining scientific and research activities and thematic focus of scholarly works within the historical sciences. Despite the aforesaid, at least a fundamental and starting platform for a systematic research in the field of the history of bell founding, bells, and their founders in our geographical area was created in that time. After the change of political conditions in 1990, the launched research continued, which had brought new results and conclusions within the history of bells. Campanology had gradually gained its supporters and adherents. Thanks to Prof. Šimončič and Dr. Spiritza, a narrow circle of students – future campanologists began to shape at the Trnava University. The theme of bells had probably become most interesting for Juraj Gembický, one of the students and at present, besides Dr. Spiritza, virtually the most active campanologist in Slovakia. Within the last ten years, this scientific interest has been de facto reflected in the increase of the number of publications of the above mentioned authors, as well as in the willingness of young campanologists to follow in the uncompleted terrain sounding of all known bell sites in Slovakia and create a scheme of functioning of bell founding in Slovakia. In comparison with campanology in the Czech Republic, Hungary or Germany, where this theme is extremely popular, it has meant, despite the last years, a significant improvement. In cooperation with foreign campanologists, preservationists, and epigraphists several projects have been launched. They are primarily aimed at activities focusing on the preservation of historical bells.
Therefore, the present paper on a current state and future prospects of the research in the field of bells in Slovakia evaluates the fulfilment of the tasks within the scientific and research plans in the past and today. The paper consists of three parts preceded by a short introduction, that is zeroed in on campanology as a science, its importance, meaning, and the impact of the research of historical bells on history of technology, history of art, and other historical disciplines. In the paper, the author firstly deals with the historiography of scholarly campanological publications in Slovakia from 1968 to 1990 in order to point to their live heritage, as well as to what would influence the research in the field of bells and their founders in the past. In this respect, the author particularly points to the political tendencies that had huge impact on campanology. Therefore, the paper sums up the list of 25 generally known publications by Juraj Spiritza since 2001. The author points to the place of bells in historical literature, especially in Hungarian periodicals Archaeologiai Közlemények and Archaeologiai Értesítő by Hungarian authors Josef Janicsko, Ferenc Kubínyi, Béla Rudnay, and others by 1918.
The second part of the paper deals with the campanological research after 1990. It focuses on the most important event in that period of time, which was publishing of the first Slovak modern monograph exclusively dealing with the theme of bells and their founders, entitled Biografický slovník zvonolejárov na Slovensku v druhom tisícročí. After 1990 several scholarly works of this type have been published. The first book entitled Corpus campanarum Slovaciae was edited by Milan Petráš. Very interesting was also a book by a Hungarian author Pál Pátay, which also significantly contributed to our knowledge of the history of Slovak bell founding. Both latter books, however, paled in comparison with Biografický slovník zvonolejárov na Slovensku v druhom tisícročí. Compared to Corpus campanarum Slovaciae, Biografický slovník zvonolejárov na Slovensku v druhom tisícročí contained 150 more biographical entries, to a large extent thanks to the theses by the students of Dr. Spiritza and Prof. Šimončič. After all, one of the most important reasons for compiling the monograph were also results of Juraj Gembický’s research. The latter is dealt with in the third part of the paper. Actually, he was first who examined the bell sites in the little known eastern regions of Slovakia, particularly in the city of Košice and the adjacent villages in 2000.
Juraj Gembický’s research and his contribution to the field of the history of bell founding in Slovakia, in constant collaboration with campanologists from Hungary and the Czech Republic, especially with Radek Lung, became a main topic of the third part of the paper. Papers published by Gembický on the occasion of Harangtörténeti Ankét increase the credit of campanology and shift it to the higher professional level. In this respect, it is necessary to mention the phenomenon of registration of the Proposal of traditional manual ringing in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage at the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic, to the preparation and content of which Juraj Gembický had contributed.
In the last part of the paper, the author deals with the bell founding in the town of Prešov. After completing the field research and initial archival research, an existence of the bell founders’ guild in the town in the early 18th century was confirmed for the first time. It is the first known recorded and documented bell founders’ guild in the territory of Slovakia. Finally, in terms of methodology, the author pointed out that research of bells cannot be carried out without field research, and he completely evaluated its most important criteria and techniques. Technical description of the object – the bell – based on knowledge of technical terminology of its individual components, through transcription and translation of epigraphic captions, to the evaluation of decoration, up to taking a picture of the described object and measuring its technical parameters, thus already traditionally creates a basic platform for the research of bells in Slovakia. Thanks to the above stated, campanology in its complexity and particularity, appears to be very useful to expand knowledge on the history of the craft.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 91-97 © Verbum 2012
Pavol MIKLOVIČ: František Xaverský Eder : Opis provincie Moxov v Peruánskom kráľovstve / Franciscus Xavier Eder : The Description of the Province of Moxos in the Peruvian Kingdom

KEYWORDS: Moxos, Moxitania, Peru, indigenous population, Jesuit missions
ABSTRACT: Franciscus Xavier Eder was a Jesuit missionary, who served in the Peruvian province Moxitania among native people called Moxos. Upon his return home, he wrote a manuscript that was edited by Pal Mako and published in 1791. Entitled Descriptio Provinciae Moxitarum in Regno Peruano, the work provides us with a picture of the Peruvian kingdom (the official name was the Viceroyalty of Peru), the province of Moxitania, as well as the customs and the way of life of the indigenous inhabitants of this region. The present text is the first and last chapter of that work describing the position of the Peruvian kingdom, in particular its centre, the city of Lima, and focusing on the settlements of already Christianized Moxos.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 272-276 © Verbum 2012
Rozhovor s doktorom bohoslovia Andrijom Michalejkom : Náš archív obsahuje 1 929 rozhovorov s pamätníkmi (Ukrajinská katolícka univerzita, Ľvov) / Interview with Doctor of Theology Andriy Mykhaleyko : Our Archive Contains 1,929 Interviews with “Old Timers”

ABSTRACT: Fr. Andriy Mykhaleyko, Ph.D. is director of the Institute of Church History and lecturer at the Department of Church History, Ukrainian Catholic University. The object of his scientific interest is church history in the Ukraine, with emphasis on the history of the churches of Eastern Christianity. He is an author of several monographs and dozens of studies, the most renowned of which are Per aspera ad astra. Der Einheitsgedanke im theologischen und pastoralen Werk von Josyf Slipyj (1892 – 1984). Eine historische Untersuchung; Die katholischen Ostkirchen and Einheit : Auftrag und Erbe. Anthologie von Texten der Ukrainischen Griechisch-Katholischen Kirche zu Fragen der Kircheneinheit mit Kommentar.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 277-296 © Verbum 2012
Recenzie / Reviews

Polybios. Dějiny. Svazek I-IV. Z řeckého originálu přeložil, předmluvu a poznámky napsal Pavel Oliva. Praha : Arista – Baset – Maitrea, 2008-2012, ISBN různe [Edice Antická knihovna, sv. 78-81]. (Igor Lisový)
GOLDSWORTHY, Adrian. Caesar. Život Giganta. Preložil Lumír Mikulka. Plzeň : Plejáda, 2010, 552 s. a 16 s. príloha. ISB N 978-80-87374-43-6. (Tomáš Klokner)
ČERMÁKOVÁ, Eva. Krajinami cizích časů. Vnímaní prostoru a času usazenými a nomádskymi kulturami. Praha : Dokořán, 2012, 168 s. ISB N 978-80-7363-388-2. (Ladislav Gromský)
LENDEROVÁ, Milena - JIRÁNEK, Tomáš - MACKOVÁ, Marie. Z dějin české každodennosti. Život v 19. století. Praha : Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Nakladatelství Karolinum, 2010, 430 s. ISB N 978-80-246-1683-4. (Ján Golian)
CABAN, Peter. Dejiny slávenia Eucharistie do Druhého vatikánskeho koncilu. Trnava : Spolok svätého Vojtecha, 2010, 152 s. ISB N 978-80-7162-802-6. (Zuzana Juhaniaková)
České soudobé dějiny v diskusi. Edice Quodlibet. Praha : Ústav pro soudobé dějiny AV ČR, 2011, 128 s. ISB N 978-80-7285-139-3. (Peter Zmátlo)

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 297-318 © Verbum 2012
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 319-332 © Verbum 2012
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 333-338 © Verbum 2012
Internetové odkazy / Web links

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