01/2011

2011-01

OBSAH / CONTENTS

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Beáta VIDA: Fundačný proces rehole cistercitov v Uhorsku / Foundation process of the Order of Cistercians in Hungary (pp. 7-32)

Martin TRIBULA: Netradičné stredoveké zobrazenia Svätej Trojice na Slovensku / Non-traditional Medieval Depictions of the Holy Trinity in Slovakia (pp. 33-51)

Peter SKOKAN: Luxus alebo nevyhnutnosť? K niektorým aspektom sociálneho zákonodarstva v edvardiánskej Británii / Luxury or Necessity? Some Aspects of Social Legislation in Edwardian Britain (pp. 52-87)

Martin LUPČO: Religiozita pravoslávnych veriacich v slovenskej spoločnosti / Religiosity of the Orthodox Faithful in the Slovak Society (pp. 88-107)

Diskusie, polemiky / Discussions, Polemics

Jindřich Zdeněk CHAROUZ: Zasvěcený život tváří v tvář laické společnosti českých zemí „dlouhého“ 19. století / Consecrated Life Face to Face with the Lay Society of the Czech Lands in the “Long” 19th Century (pp. 108-114)

Rozhovory / Interviews

Je filozofia histórie potrebná pre historikov? Rozhovor s prof. Paulom A. Rothom / May Philosophy of History Be Useful for Historians? Interview with Prof. Paul A. Roth (University of California, Santa Cruz) (pp. 115-121)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 122-134)

Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 135-160)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 161-165)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 166-174)


ABSTRAKTY

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 7-32 © Verbum 2011
BEÁTA VIDA: Fundačný proces rehole cistercitov v Uhorsku / Foundation Process of the Order of Cistercians in Hungary

KEYWORDS: Middle Ages, Order of Cistercians, Hungary, Monastic Life, Monastery Foundations
ABSTRACT: The author in her paper deals with the foundations of Cistercian monasteries in Hungary in the Middle Ages. She examines, whether they were established by the ruler or some other secular of ecclesiastical dignitary. She notes that in Hungary the ruler’s foundations of Cistercians were most important and profitable, and that private squire’s foundations were not popular. She also describes particular convents and the circumstances of their establishment or, in some cases, their founders. The greatest flowering of the Order in Hungary was in the 12th and 13th century. At that time there were 22 abbeys in Hungary. In the mid-15th century a big decline of the Order began.
Before the Order decided to establish a new abbey in a certain locality, it always considered a suitable territory as well as stable financial support. A significant part of the incomes of monasteries was made by a tithe, then by left king’s taxes and chiefly by the toll they received from the monarch. For instance the monasteries in Pilis and Zirc had ideal location with many important advantages like the proximity of a river, untouched nature and especially the possibility of solitude and silence. Also Kerc, Szentgotthárd, Bélapátfalva and Spišský Štiavnik met the Cistercians’ requirements. However, in the vicinity of some monasteries one can also find populated villages from the period of the building of an abbey. For instance Borsmonostor was built next to the market. Similarly, in Szentgotthárd before the arrival of Cistercians there was already a parish in the village. The monks who came to Zirc were given a several decades functioning royal manor to become a centre of their monastery as well as a village pertaining to the manor. In Pilis the Cistercians took over an old Benedictine monastery in the vicinity of a village. However, after a new monastery had been built the village was moved away. In Pásztó, like in Pilis, they moved to the Benedictine monastery in the centre of a populated area.
In examining the history of Cistercian monasteries one of basic data is a person of a founder. The peculiarity of Hungarian abbeys is that it was a monarch who most supported them. Besides royal foundations there are also examples of ecclesiastical dignitaries or secular magnates who founded monasteries. Benedictines, and from among reform orders Premonstrates, preferred so called ancestral monasteries. Perhaps the most important task of Hungarian ancestral monasteries was to provide a burial place for the members of the family. The cult of ancestors helped strengthen relationships within a family divided into branches. The group of persons allowed to be buried in the church was strictly limited by the decision of the general chapter. However, the founder of the monastery could find his final resting place in the church.
In Hungary the Order tried not to be owned by a squire. The Order would not tolerate a squire’s interference in the internal life and economy of a monastery. In the case of Benedictines and Premonstrates the noblemen did not have such an experience. The founder could appoint their superiors as well as use the money of the monastery according to his needs. This explains why quite a few Cistercian monasteries were found in Hungary. The greater part of foundations was created by ecclesiastical dignitaries. In Hungary three abbeys were founded this way. 
Important is also the question of whether the foundation meant the building of an entirely new abbey or the monks came to an already existing but not functioning complex. Another point is the origin of the first monks, i.e. from which monastery they had come. In the case of Hungary it is known that most of monasteries are linked to the filiations of French monasteries in Clairvaux and Pontigny, while for instance in Poland, Austria, Bohemia and Germany the abbeys belong to the Morimond branch. Having decided to found a new abbey a maternal monastery sent one abbot and twelve monks to their new location. However, since the abbot of the maternal monastery (pater abbas) supervised the branch monasteries, their relations were not disrupted. During annual visitations he controlled if all the regulations were respected. In addition, the abbots of monasteries were to attend the great (general) chapter in Citeaux annually. Here decisions were made on the matters relating to the whole Order, new foundations and important events in particular abbeys.
The selection of the place for a new monastery also depended on the position of the founder’s lands. Only monarchs were able to provide a suitable place for Cistercians. Despite of this the places, where Cikádor and Egres were founded, were not suitable. On the other hand Zirc, Szentgotthárd, Kerc, Toplica and (Spišský) Štiavnik met Cistercians’ customs and traditions. The settlement of the Cistercians in Hungary was the result of the church policy of following monarchs: Géza II (1141 – 1162), Béla III (1172 – 1196), his sons Imre (1196 – 1204) and Andrew II (1205 – 1235) and also his grandson Béla IV (1235 – 1270). They established the most important monasteries of the Order in Hungary: Cikádor, Egres, Zirc, Pilis, Szentgotthárd, Pásztó, Toplica, Kerc and Petrovaradin.
In the mid-15th century the situation in Hungary changed. The number of monk in monasteries had decreased. Monastic life in the whole country began to decline. On the pleas of Matthias Corvinus the general chapter sent seven groups of monks with abbots from the German territory in 1480 to revitalize the former blooming abbeys. However, it was only a temporary solution. The monasteries were not entered by new members and on the eve of the Turkish occupation the seven convents were down too. On September 7, 1526 the Turks who reached Buda, burnt the monastery in Pilis. The place was destroyed to such an extent that about 160 years later it was not possible to tell if the monastery was occupied by the Cistercians or the Pauline monks.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 33-51 © Verbum 2011
MARTIN TRIBULA: Netradičné stredoveké zobrazenia sv. Trojice na Slovensku / Non-traditional Medieval Depictions of the Holy Trinity in Slovakia

KEYWORDS: Slovakia, Middle Ages, Fine Art, Holy Trinity, Symbolism
ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper is to construe the peculiar depictions of the Holy Trinity in medieval Slovak art by analyzing artistic, cult, historical and social aspects of the issue. The peculiar formal rendition of these depictions is explained by referring to their specific significance related to the period Christian piety, as well as to certain socio-historical circumstances. In the explanation a multifunctional character of medieval art is underlined.
There are quite many medieval depictions of the Holy Trinity in the territory of Slovakia, in which God is represented by a figure with three heads or three faces that are attached to one body. In comparison with neighbouring countries, these depictions are relatively numerous. Seven medieval images of the Holy Trinity have been preserved in Slovakia up to the present. Three of them have a peculiar form. Probably the oldest three-faced depiction of the Holy Trinity is in the chancel of the church in Ochtiná. Another three-faced depiction of the Holy Trinity has been preserved in the same county. One can see it on the triumphal arch of the church in Rákoš. Finally, the third, now three-headed depiction of the Holy Trinity, is on the dome of the sanctuary in the church in Žehra. Some scholars claim that there are two other three-faced medieval depictions in the territory of Slovakia – in churches in Horné Jaseno and Veľká Lomnica. However, we refuse this interpretation. In our opinion, they are rather representations of Antichrist and an allegory of Wisdom.
One may be surprised over the fact that this topic has been reflected insufficiently by both domestic and foreign scholars. The most frequently discussed issue has been a heathen origin of these depictions. However, historical sources do not provide us with any kind of evidence of the cult of pre-Christian polycephalous divinities (Triglav) in the territory of Slovakia. Furthermore, it would have been very uncommon if some heathen relics had gotten infiltrated into official church art. Detailed investigation of peculiar depictions of the Holy Trinity in the territory of Slovakia has revealed some remarkable facts. The comparison of these images has showed that all of them were created around the same time (second half of the 14th century) and they were commissioned by feudal owners of village churches; all of them are murals and were situated on the most exposed positions within the church interiors; they all have timeless representative character and they express and accent the dogma of the unity of three persons of God.
The peculiar depictions of the Holy Trinity played a specific role in the Christian culture of the 14th century. In the context of Christian piety, these representations reminded the faithful of the unity of three persons of God. One historical event, however, was of crucial significance in this matter. In the first half of the 14th century Pope John XXII inserted the Feast of the Holy Trinity into the liturgical calendar. The promotion of the dogma of the Trinity became a central concern of the donators of selected depictions, who all belonged to lower nobility. These social classes supported Charles Robert of Anjou in the struggle for Hungarian Crown at the beginning of the 14th century. The same support did he receive from the Holy See. Thus the peculiar depictions of the Holy Trinity in the territory of Slovakia may be perceived as manifestations of more or less direct connections among three entities: the House of Anjou, above-mentioned members of Hungarian lower nobility and the pope. By placing orders for realization of selected depictions, donators, on one hand, demonstrated their loyalty to the official West European supranational religious practice, and, on the other hand, to official Hungarian internal policy. However, since all of the foregoing aspects were very integrated, it is not clear which of them was the most significant.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 52-87 © Verbum 2011
PETER SKOKAN: Luxus alebo nevyhnutnosť? K niektorým aspektom sociálneho zákonodarstva v edvardiánskej Británii / Luxury or Necessity? Some Aspects of Social Legislation in Edwardian Britain

KEYWORDS: Social Reform, Progressivism, New Liberalism, Imperial Preference, National Efficiency
ABSTRACT: The paper focuses on social reforms in Edwardian Britain at the turn of the 20th century. It observes basic impulses that led to the change of perception of active social policy, which had been in progress since 1880’s. The author does not omit any of economic, social, political and philosophical backgrounds of the change. Simultaneously, various problems in these fields were evoking anxiety for British ability to compete other Great Powers, which was emphasized by problems that Britain encountered during the Boer War. The state of affairs led to the emergence of concepts of “national efficiency“, and of “imperial preference“. After 1906, British political leaders adopted the idea of national efficiency, which contained a strong emphasis on broad social reforms. Finally, some of them were implemented into practice, which meant a considerable change in social policy in general, because the state accepted a direct intervention in social relations. On the one hand, the change itself was supposed to make Britain more efficient and on the other hand, it was supposed to weaken socialist movement in favour of ideas of new liberalism.
The change in perception of social legislation and the transition from the state non-interference to the state intervention had undergone natural development and was related to the reinterpretations of classic principles of liberalism, as well as domestic and foreign challenges. Complications associated with economy and foreign policy, together with the social complications, caused tangible concern, not only at the highest political level, about the competitiveness of Britain in an imaginary world competition. Finally, the Boer War showed that this concern had been relevant. This local conflict gave a definite impetus to the formation of two fundamental national-social concepts of the early 20th century: “national efficiency” and “imperial preference”, that attempted to provide an answer to the question of how to maintain a leading position among the Great Powers. Both concepts, despite their different approaches to the issues, clearly preferred a state intervention in social relationships. They were chiefly motivated by efforts to increase productivity and remain competitive. 
After 1906 “national efficiency” won recognition. It was based on the fundamental premise of new liberalism, i.e. that an efficient system can only be built on the bases of reconciliation between employees and employers, which brought wide-ranging social reforms and changes in the budget and tax policy in the following period. Therefore, if we would like to answer the question put in the heading, i.e. whether the social reforms in Edwardian Britain were a display of luxury or rather necessity, we must take into account all factors, both internal and external.
The concern about the economic, as well as society-wide non-competitiveness encouraged by the problems in the Boer War, along with the social complications in Britain, where one third of the population lived around poverty line and got subsequently radicalized, had found a fertile ground for diverse scenarios of the last match and termination. These ranged from the concern about the economic defeats, up to the downright panic dread of the possibility of German landing on the British Isles. To face this concern meant to promote a broad-based reform, which could not neglect the social issues of the state and its Empire and which was supposed to prevent a creation of any kind of the fifth colony.
Subsequent adoption of progressivism, therefore, originated in the conviction based on the newly defined “positive freedom”, as well as in the struggle of radicals for equal opportunities and against aristocratic privileges. On the other hand, however, this step – especially for complicated internal and foreign situation of Britain – could not be fully deprived of a certain kind of special-purposed and pragmatic reformism, the main objective of which was to preventively weaken the socialist tendencies in the society, as well as to create a kind of system in social relationships that would neither threaten nor weaken Britain and its Empire, but it would rather strengthen them on the basis of the society-wide consensus and cooperation. From this perspective, the contemporary adoption of progressivist ideas and their subsequent implementation into practice appears to be a necessity motivated by the need to maintain the stability of the social order, as well as the vision of the social efficiency.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 88-107 © Verbum 2011
MARTIN LUPČO: Religiozita pravoslávnych veriacich v slovenskej spoločnosti / Religiosity of the Orthodox Faithful in the Slovak Society

KEYWORDS: Eastern Slovakia, Greek Catholic Church, Jurisdiction, Orthodox Church, Sobor (Council) of Prešov, Religiosity, Region of Zemplín (Zemplinum), 20th Century
ABSTRACT: After the fall of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia in 1989, the Slovak historians became increasingly interested in Church history. The scholars of both academic and higher education institutions began to pay attention not only to the history of the Catholic Church – both Roman and Greek – but also to the history of the Orthodox Church. These were certainly interesting issues related to other aspects, such as the Greek Catholic Church, Ruthenian and Ukrainian questions etc. The objective of the paper is to analyze the history of the Orthodox Church and to assess the development of religiosity of the Orthodox faithful in the territory of Slovakia in the 20th century, with an emphasis on eastern and north-eastern Slovakia.
With the “Velvet Revolution“, and the subsequent fall of the totalitarian regime in Czechoslovakia, both Czech and Slovak historians became increasingly interested in Church history. It is good, that despite the process of overall secularization, the scholars of both academic and higher education institutions aim their attention to this subject. 
Since 1989 historians of the former communist countries of Central and South-East Europe have increasingly published numerous writings, such as monographs and series of documents and memoirs, as well as articles and studies. In these they seek objective and comprehensive assessment of the history of both the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.
The present paper has an ambition to contribute to the writings in this field. Its objective is to describe and analyze the development of religiosity of the Orthodox faithful in the 20th century, with an emphasis on the territory of eastern and northeastern Slovakia. Having applied a principle of critical analysis, we focused just on several key moments in the history of the Orthodox Church. The study is divided into four time periods, in which we mainly deal with the relations between the state and the Church (external conditions), as well as with the mutual relations between the two denominations /Greek Catholic and Orthodox Church/ (internal conditions).
The first chapter describes the initial spread of Orthodoxy at the beginning of the 20th century thank to the engagement of expatriates, who were returning from the USA after the establishment of the first Czechoslovak Republic. The promotion of the Orthodox faith was also fuelled by the Magyarization policy of the Greek Catholic Church, as well as deplorable social conditions of peasants (abolishment of semifeudal relics, church obligations in the form of the so called “koblina” and “rokovina”). The second chapter analyzes the development of the Orthodox Church in the interwar period. The main part of the paper deals with the situation after February 25, 1948, when the Orthodox Church found itself in the thrall of state power. In the paper we describe the establishment of independent Eparchies of Prešov and Michalovce, the proclamation of autokefality, the Sobor of Prešov and the Action “P-100”. The natural consequence of the results of the Action “P”, i.e. the liquidation of the Greek Catholic Church, was the rapid rise of religiosity of the Orthodox faithful. After the Sobor of Prešov, the Eparchy of Prešov had 259 parishes with 1,022 branches and to the Eparchy of Michalovce belonged 90 parishes and 362 filial churches, with overall 103,917 faithful. The final part informs the reader about the revival process of the Greek Catholic Church in 1968 and efforts to consolidate the relations between the two denominations in the second half of the 20th century.
The paper did not confined itself just to the most remarkable quantitative events in the life of the Orthodox Church in the former Czechoslovakia, i.e. arrival of the Czechs of Volyne from the former Volyn Oblast, as well as the demobilized soldiers of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps, but it also focused on the state power interventions (so called Action “P”), which had significantly contributed to the rapid increase of the number of the Orthodox faithful in eastern Slovakia. To provide a more comprehensive picture, we did not confined ourselves just to the secondary sources and contemporary press (Hlas pravoslaví, Svetlo pravoslávia, Prameň), but we also paid particular attention to the heuristics of the historical documents in the funds of a number of domestic and foreign archives (Národní archiv v Prahe, Slovenský národný archív, Štátny archív Prešov etc.). As for the qualitative research, the paper includes, inter alia, the chronicles of the Orthodox Church communities in Becher and Varadka, which enrich the written text with innovative information. 
Hopefully, the paper will become a valuable source of new information and enrich the readers interested in the history of the Orthodox Church in the former Czechoslovakia.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 108-114 © Verbum 2011
JINDŘICH ZDENĚK CHAROUZ: Zasvěcený život tváří v tvář laické společnosti českých zemí „dlouhého“ 19. století / Consecrated Life Face to Face with the Lay Society of the Czech Lands in the “Long” 19th Century

KEYWORDS: Catholic Church, Monastic Life, Czech Lands, Religious History of the 19th Century
ABSTRACT: Monastic life represents both historical and theological reality. Their very brief outline is followed by reflexions on the changes introduced by the “long” 19th century (especially the emergence of assistant women’s congregations). The general situation of the Catholic Church is presented on the example of the Czech Lands, including the different attitude of a lay, though officially Catholic, environment.
The Second Vatican Council decree Perfectae Caritatis reminds us that the monastic life is both historical and theological reality. A very brief outline of the historical development of consecrated life is presented by the look at the “long” 19th century, during which there were many radical changes even in the monastic life. Besides the restoration of old religious orders, new religious, particularly women’s and assistant, orders began to flourish, while the social environment, in which these changes took place, was getting increasingly estranged from the Church. In the Czech Lands this confrontation of the lay and Church elements was accompanied by national confrontation, i.e. Czech vs. German. As contemporary documents tell us, Catholic selfawareness faced considerable resistance even in the officially Catholic Habsburg monarchy.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 115-121 © Verbum 2011
Je filozofia histórie potrebná pre historikov? Rozhovor s prof. Paulom A. Rothom (University of California, Santa Cruz) / May Philosophy of History Be Useful for Historians? Interview with Prof. Paul A. Roth (University of California, Santa Cruz)

ABSTRACT: Prof. Paul Andrew Roth, Ph.D. is professor of philosophy at the University of California, Santa Cruz, USA. After he gained his Ph.D. in philosophy at the University of Chicago in 1978, he joined the Department of Philosophy at the University of Missouri, St. Louis. Since 2004 he has worked at the Department of Philosophy at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He published a book Meaning and Method in the Social Sciences: A Case for Methodological Pluralism (1987) and co-edited a publication The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (2003). He has also published dozens of other philosophical writings and has been a principal investigator of more than a dozen of funded projects. He holds a number of honours and awards. At present he is on editorial board of three journals: Journal of the Philosophy of History, History of the Human Sciences and Philosophy of the Social Sciences.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 122-134 © Verbum 2011
Recenzie / Reviews

BURKE, Peter. Co je kulturní historie? Praha : Dokořán, 2011, 217 s. ISBN 978-80-7363-302-8. (Peter Olexák)
MUSILOVÁ, Margaréta - TURČAN, Vladimír et al. Rímske pamiatky na strednom Dunaji : Od Vindobony po Aquincum. Bratislava : Nadácia pre záchranu kultúrneho dedičstva, 2010, 200 s. ISBN 978-80-968910-1-6. (Lucia Tokárová)
WEEBER, Karl-Wilhelm. Alltag im Alten Rom. Das Stadtleben. Mannheim : Artemis & Winkler, 2010, 400 s. ISBN 978-3-538-03135-7. (Igor Lisový)
PELIKAN, Jaroslav. Rozwój teologii średniowiecznej (600 – 1300). Tradycja chreścijańska. Historia rozwoju doktryny, tom III. Kraków : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 2009, 384 s. ISBN 978-83-233-2795-0. (Gabriel Hunčaga)
MAREK, Pavel. Josef Žídek. Nástin života a díla reformního kněze, zakladatelské postavy pravoslavné církve na Moravě. Olomouc : Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Filozofická fakulta, 2010, 351 s. vč. příloh. ISBN 978-80-244-2631-0. (Petr Balcárek)

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 135-160 © Verbum 2011
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 161-165 © Verbum 2011
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 166-174 © Verbum 2011
Internetové odkazy / Web links

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