02/2010

2010-02

OBSAH / CONTENTS

Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles

Marta SENDEKOVÁ: Prenasledovanie kresťanov v rímskej armáde koncom 3. storočia a začiatkom 4. storočia / The Persecution of Christians in the Roman Army in Late 3rd and Early 4th Century (pp. 175-185)

David PAPAJÍK: Polsko-sirotčí vojenská výprava proti řádu německých rytířů k Baltskému moři v roce 1433 / Polish-Orphan Campaign against the Teutonic Knights to the Baltic Sea in 1433 (pp. 186-205)

Jaroslav NEMEŠ: Triumf barokovej zbožnosti: posledný biskup humanista v Uhorsku / The Triumph of the Baroque Piety: Last Humanist Bishop in Hungary (pp. 206-219)

Peter OLEXÁK: Zmeny religiózneho správania v devätnástom storočí / Changes in Religious Behaviour in the Nineteenth Century (pp. 220-243)

Andrea POKLUDOVÁ: Public Street Lighting in Moravian and Silesian Towns in the Second Half of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century / Veřejné osvětlení moravských a slezských měst v druhé polovině 19. a na počátku 20. století (pp. 244-250)

Diskusie, polemiky / Discussions, Polemics

György SZABADOS: Obraz Arpáda ako panovníka starých Maďarov / The Image of Árpád as a Ruler of Old Magyars (pp. 251-265)

Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations

„Mystické uvažovanie o najvyššom Bohu“ pápeža Gregora I. / “Mystical Contemplation of the Supreme God” by Pope Gregory I (pp. 266-271)

Rozhovory / Interviews

„Kulturní cena Karla IV. bude udělována osobnostem, které se zasloužily o porozumění mezi Německem a Českou republikou“ Rozhovor s paní Věrou Blažkovou / „Cultural Charles IV Prize will be Awarded to Individuals who Weighed in on Understanding Between Germany and the Czech Republic“. Interview with Mrs Věra Blažková (pp. 272-276)

Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 277-294)

Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 295-311)

Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 312-322)

Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 323-331)


ABSTRAKTY

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 175-185 © Verbum 2010
MARTA SENDEKOVÁ: Prenasledovanie kresťanov v rímskej armáde koncom 3. storočia a začiatkom 4. storočia / The Persecution of Christians in the Roman Army in Late 3rd and Early 4th Century

KEYWORDS: Roman Empire, Diocletian, Tetrarchy, Persecution of Christians, Roman military, Acta, Passiones
ABSTRACT: The study deals with the persecution of Christians in the Roman military in late 3rd and early 4th century as a consequence of the religious policy under Emperor Diocletian, which sought to strenghten the traditional Roman religion. Based on the Christian sources acta and passiones there are also named some individual cases of the purge of Christians from the military, even though the hagiographic character of the sources is highlighted here.
The beginning of the Christians´persecution under the reign of Emperor Diocletian (284 - 305) and during the first tetrarchy is dated back to the 90´s of the 3rd century in the Roman Empire. After founding the tetrarchic collegium the emperor focused on a large package of reforms in respective areas of political life in the Empire. The religious policy of Diocletian aimed at the renewal of the traditional Roman religion and laying theocratic foundations for the imperial power. A close relationship between the pagan religion and Empire’s idelology brought about necessarily a conflict with Christianity.
The imperial edict ordering the purge of Christians from the army has recently become a matter for discussion. This pertains to facts about when the edict was issued and which emperor was accountable for it. Based on works of ancient authors Eusebius and Lactantius one can assert that the edict was formally and definitely originated by Diocletian and it was issued by him probably in 297/298. The publication of the edict brought about a problem incurring the incompatibility of the Christian religion with a soldier’s profession and his remaining in the service of emperors. The edict included the order for soldiers to quit the service should they not subject themselves to the Pagan worship, being obligatory for them. 
The Christian sources of acta and passiones offer individual cases of the purge of Christians from the army. For instance, a legend on the Theban Legion refers to the execution of Christian soldiers as a consequence of the program’s “cleansing” in the army. Acta Maximiliani records the death of soldier Maximilian who refused to enter the army because it contradicted his religious belief. Passio S. Marcelli reports on a severe transgression of the refusal of obedience of higher officer Marcellus who refused to serve in the army because of his belief. A similar case represents veteranus Tipasius who refused the military service on African soil, described in Passio S. Typasii Veterani.
As any confrontation of these files with other ancient documents is not possible it is also not possible to claim unequivocally what is credible and what a legend in the sources. This is why it is essential to consider the historical core of the sources with caution. These documents are to be read as an evidence on the legacy of the Christian belief and religious worship. To sum up, one can assign a character of a limited historical value to them and have them in the hagiographic tradition attached.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 186-205 © Verbum 2010
DAVID PAPAJÍK: Polsko-sirotčí vojenská výprava proti řádu německých rytířů k Baltskému moři v roce 1433 / Polish-Orphan Campaign against the Teutonic Knights to the Baltic Sea in 1433

KEYWORDS: Military History, 15th Century, Bohemia, Poland, Teutonic Knights, Hussites, Jan Čapek of Sány
ABSTRACT: The author of the paper deals with the causes, course and results of the most famous Hussite foreign campaign in 1433. It was directed against the Teutonic Knights and it came up to the shores of the Baltic Sea. He shows that the campaign was not a matter of all Hussite groups, but just those who were called “Orphans” (originally from eastern Bohemia). Hussites undertook the campaign as allies of Poland, which also set aside military troops for the action. The campaign did not achieve any major strategic victory. Its importance lay rather in the looting of the enemy territory.
The author of the paper deals with the causes, course and results of the most famous Hussite foreign campaign in 1433. It was directed against the Teutonic Knights and it came up to the shores of the Baltic Sea. He shows that the campaign was not a matter of all Hussite groups, but just those who were called “Orphans”. They came originally from the territory of eastern Bohemia. After the death of their leader Jan Žiška of Trocnov they adopted the name “Orphans” as a mark of respect to him. The campaign became a great personal triumph of an Orphans’ commander Jan Čapek of Sány. Hussites fought against the Teutonic Knights as allies of the King of Poland who also hired and paid them. They can be therefore called mercenaries, though the Czech historiography had long resisted this term. The campaign involves a lot of stories and events recorded by both Polish and Prussian contemporary chroniclers. The information contained in these narrative sources cannot be confirmed nor denied on the basis of other sources. Therefore we can either believe them or deny them. However, thank to these narrative sources the characters of particular participants of the campaign revive before the reader, especially that of the Orphans’ commander Ján Čapek of Sány. An older chronicle of the Grandmaster of Teutonic Knights contains a picturesque history of a Hussite troop, which on July 22, 1433 took part in the general attack against the town of Chojnice. The Orphans tried to get to the Chojnice ramparts across the pond next to the part of fortifications. However, they got stuck in the mud, so they were close to certain death. According to the order’s chronicler they were rescued by the defenders who pulled them over the ramparts to the town.
Another story was written by the Polish chronicler Dlugos. He recounted how the commander of the Hussite troops Jan Čapek of Sány had ordered in conquered Tczew to burn the captured Czechs who fought in the service of the Teutonic Knights. The whole story is cloaked in the guise of nationalist rivalries between Slavs and Teutons.
The most famous story is then connected with a description of the Hussites upon their arrival to the Baltic Sea. The events on the shores of the Baltic Sea were recorded in a rather detailed way by Conrad Bitschin, town clerk of Klum, Jeronym Waldau, parish priest of Toruń as well as the Polish chronicler Dlugos. Both horsemen and infantrymen with great pleasure plunged into the sea, where they played like little kids. They rode on the horseback in the sea as far as they could. In the water the soldiers jumped on each other, hugged and jogged one another. Allegedly, they even hastily organized knight games and tournaments in the water. For ordinary soldiers it was an unforgettable experience to see the sea for the first time. According to Dlugos the soldiers who came up to the sea felt like winners. Their joyous cry and cheering could be heard everywhere. Later on soldiers were dubbed knights on the shore. The above stated story is perfectly complemented by the report of Conrad Bitschin. According to him the main scene on the shore belonged to the Hussite commander Jan Čapek of Sány. He rode his horse into the waves and from there he decided to talk to his fighters. According to the Prussian chronicler he said: “Behold, my brothers, you will witness that I came up to the end of the world and I can not proceed any further because of the sea water.”
Apart from the burnt soil the campaign did not reach any strategic victory. The highlight of the campaign was about a six weeks long unsuccessful siege of the town of Chojnice. Although the combined Polish-Orphan troops reached the city of Gdańsk too, its four days siege can be considered to be just symbolic.
The Hussites returned from Prussia as winners. During the campaign they stole lots of precious things and money. Moreover, they got a reward from the King of Poland. According to chronicler Dlugos the King rewarded the Hussites appropriately according to their merit. He gave them an agreed pay, golden and silver vessels, clothes and precious horses. Most interest in Bohemia was attracted by a camel as a special gift of the King of Poland. It was the return of the Hussites and gifts they had received that Bohemian chronicles most focused on.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 206-219 © Verbum 2010
JAROSLAV NEMEŠ: Triumf barokovej zbožnosti: posledný biskup humanista v Uhorsku / The Triumph of the Baroque Piety: Last Humanist Bishop in Hungary

KEYWORDS: Hungary, Roman Catholic Church, 17th Century, Humanism, Archbishopric of Esztergom, Demeter Naprágyi
ABSTRACT: The implementation of the Trent reforms was waiting for a new type of a Catholic Church dignitary. A symbolic image of the ending era of humanism was the competition for the see of the archbishop of Esztergom in the autumn of 1616. There were two candidates. The first was Demeter Naprágyi, lover of art and writer. However, he had no chance to succeed because the era of humanist intelligentsia was already over. The second candidate was Peter Pázmány, Jesuit, the fruit of modern Catholic education. Dignitaries like him ended the stage of the reformation of the Church in the 16th century and brought it to the stage of purposive recatholization of the 17th century.
Remarkably, from among three church dignitaries Ferenc Forgách, Demeter Naprágyi and Peter Pázmány, the greatest esteem up to the present belongs to Cardinal Peter Pázmány, the Archbishop of Esztergom. A number of important educational and religious institutions have carried his name. It is well known and often mentioned. The Archbishop of Kalocsa and Bishop of Győr Naprágyi, who adhered to the scholar Justus Lipsius and stoicism and expressed his concerns and doubts, could not and can not even today overshadow the type of the baroque church dignitary who championed modern Jesuit spirituality in the spirit of the motto “to be contemplative in action”.
At the end of his life Naprágyi suffered his greatest defeat. After the death of Cardinal Ferenc Forgách he showed great ambition to become the primate of Esztergom and he took measures to reach this goal. However, his reputation was not good. He was accused and suspected of favouring other denominations. This did not help his efforts. For this reason he turned directly to the King. “Since I am now et senio et dignitate first in the country,” he wrote to the King, “therefore, if Your Majesty condescends to observe the tradition and status (custom), it would be desirable to remember me.” However, the King preferred Peter Pázmány to Demeter Naprágyi for the office of Archbishop of Esztergom. Naprágyi was disappointed because he supported the Vienna and Prague policy of Matthias II in many ways and he had worked in Prague for a longer time. His grief was great. He died soon on March 25, 1619 sixtythree years old. He was buried in the Cathedral Basilica in Győr. Shabby red marble tombstone, bearing his coat of arms, is still there. However, from the aisle between the benches, where people walked, it was moved to the store under the tower.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 220-243 © Verbum 2010
PETER OLEXÁK: Zmeny religiózneho správania v devätnástom storočí / Changes in Religious Behaviour in the Nineteenth Century

KEYWORDS: 19th Century, Religiosity, Secularism, Christianity
ABSTRACT: In the nineteenth century both changes of religious behaviour and changes in religious behaviour resulted from secularization but also sacralization. The research of piety confirms a coexistence of the religiosity and secularism, continuity and fundamental changes in religious behaviour of man. However, since the mid-nineteenth century the process of change in religious behaviour in Europe had entered its epilogue at political, philosophical as well as cultural level. At the end of the nineteenth century the exodus from the medieval concepts of religiosity was almost completed.
In the nineteenth century religiosity gradually lost its place in the peoples’ beliefs. Nineteenth century was a crucial period in the modern history of piety. This trend appeared after successful Christianization in the previous period of religious renaissance and romanticism. In the nineteenth century not just the property of churches was transferred to state ownership and priests and monks left the priesthood and religious orders like in the past. In that century the phenomenon of secularization shifted and began to indicate the decline of the population with a religious view of the world, a decrease of members of religious organizations or their participation in religious ceremonies. It was a process of reducing the impact of religion in public institutions, secularization, weakening of religious power up to complete separation of churches and state, or a school system from churches or other social segments. Therefore the main political topic in European countries was the relationship between churches andstate with a range of new issues. In this system it was no longer possible to restore Ancien régime. In a series of events that took place and succeeded one another, it is not so difficult to discover the thread to be followed by various positions at the level of expressions of religious sensitivity, doctrinal and ethical-social expressions, contrasts, but also expressions of consent and solidarity. Historical changes in religious behaviour re-defined the concept of religion. An anthropological and historical probe perceived with religious sensitivity shows that after the French Revolution the man wanted to be free and he sincerely and passionately fought against the prejudices of the church, state, society, origin and custom. Liberalism, which initially sought to be the guarantor of personal freedoms, led to the care for the freedom of a nation and was perceived as confirmation of society and state in the optimistic vision of enlightenment perspective, gradual development and collective material good. Liberal lines could be seen almost everywhere. Change in religious ideas is visible in theology, philosophy, natural science, literature and social manifestations. Intellectual life slid into the open anticlericalism supported by major newspapers and magazines. Lots of institutionalized results, a lot of experience born from industrialization and new thinking started to be realized by Marxism. Thus were negated doctrines and traditional revealed faith. Christianity appeared only as a form of life, not as a doctrinal system. This also influenced the assessment of religion and religious manifestations. On the other hand one could also observe valuable anti-Marxist activities of Christian circles.
Though the industrial economy significantly contributed to desacralization, secularization did not appear to be a continuous process moved in one direction and driven by the same forces. In liberal theology, in which it was managed to eliminate the supernatural within the religious opinions, there were also sincere attempts to lead the man out of the prison of the limited finite, based not on sociological analyses according to Marx, but on the historical analysis of the Bible. For the first time these concepts were displayed at theological faculties publicly and without restraint. Generally, all major churches lost their members and the number of people, who did not confess any religion or openly professed atheism, increased. Religion itself was marginalized, fissured and destructuralized by the process of social modernization. It pulled the reins of social primacy from the hands of religion by pushing it out from hearts and social sphere, and it reduced it to a superficial, vague issue and an object of changing interests and tastes of individuals. This process was most pronounced in towns and cities in connection with the urban phenomenon and the emergence of new urban agglomerations, where religion lost its prominent role in the lives of many people. Churches themselves also contributed to the autumn of Christianity, as they tried to defend and save their own interests. There were great differences in chronology and causes of changes in religiosity in the investigated century. To avert the danger of secularization, major churches in particular countries applied a wide range of radical, liberal and conservative strategies. The secularization of culture and social morality, the elimination of influence of universal Christianity, as well as degradation of nationalist sentiment in nationalism and historical deepening of romanticism, led to the creation of increasingly larger differences and special traits among the peoples and races. Emphasis on the development of science led to the substitution of own material superiority and own technologies for a nationalist superiority and for a duty to export own forms of material life to other immature nations. In the society deflected the axiom of freedom that would gravitate to God. A sketch of political religion was prepared that was preceded by homo ideologicus. The programme was a definite farewell to Christianity as an ethical and educational force in human society. The declaration of papal infallibility and the subsequent schism of Old Catholics for that it was ever formulated, owed to the manifestations of Kulturkampf. This cultural fight was a struggle of ideas. It demonstrated the omnipotence of the state and was directed against the Catholic Church. It considered the Catholic Church an adversary and objector of modern civilization and freedom. Former confessional states gradually passed from the form of religiously neutral to militantly secular. Conversely, in the areas within the Protestant Anglo-Saxon environment, which were not reached by liberalism and religious romanticism, there were movements for return, more or less aware, to the traditional church. The myth of nation became a central theme of the state modernism. European countries preferred a lay society. In some cases laicization became a synonym of an aggressive anti-Catholic campaign. Conversely, the religiosity of the faithful was interpreted as the manifestation of anti-secular clericalism. Therefore major communities had worried until they defended the laicity within their own inner church context in the mid-twentieth century. Their defense started with the emergence of Christian parties in the late nineteenth century, which were a sign of certain lay autonomy. However, the revolutionary wave, which occurred in 1848, showed that the balance of ecclesiastical and secular power in Europe was fragile and vulnerable to great disappointment resulting from each individual and permanent delimitation of the respective areas of competence. The impact on the course of religiosity in the last decade of the nineteenth century had a social encyclical Rerum Novarum (1891). Religious issues found a clear response in the electorate and the religiosity began to correspond with the movement of ecclesiastical centralization. It got united and had the Roman shade. The encyclical became a constitutional element of several people’s parties which emerged and in many countries became a solid stream, which introduced social studies and associated a denominational electorate. However, since the mid-nineteenth century the process of change in religious behaviour had entered in Europe its epilogue at political, philosophical as well as cultural level. Therefore, in the late nineteenth century the exodus from medieval concepts of religiosity in Europe appears to be completed.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 244-250 © Verbum 2010
ANDREA POKLUDOVÁ: Public street lighting in Moravian and Silesian towns in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century

KEYWORDS: Moravia, Silesia, Town, Public street lighting, Second half of the 19th Century, Beginning of the 20th Century
ABSTRACT: The objective of the presented essay was not to overwhelm you with economic data, which are presented in detail in the published output of the grant project. I meant to describe the road taken by Moravian and Silesian towns to become modern towns, meaning towns where at least part of population could walk rather safely in illuminated streets at night. It was probably clear from the outline that the process in administrative and industrial towns did not lag behind major Central European cities, such as Vienna, the capital of the monarchy. New, modern technologies expanded rather quickly and if there was a suitable constellation of economic conditions in the local environment and modern performance of self-administration, they were introduced at the cost of an initial loss of the enterprise with the long-term prospect of profitability.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 251-265 © Verbum 2010
GYÖRGY SZABADOS: Obraz Arpáda ako panovníka starých Maďarov / The Image of Árpád as a Ruler of Old Magyars

KEYWORDS: Carpathian Basin, Hungary, 10th Century, Princ Árpád, Battle of Bratislava 907, Old Magyars
ABSTRACT: What historical documents tell us about the life and deeds of Prince Árpád? Which of these written sources are credible, or at least sustainable? When and how was his person distorted by memories of future generations, while he got into the epic by Mihály Vörösmarty or while he was immortalized by a painter Árpád Feszty in his panoramic picture or by Mihály Munkácsy in his oil paintings? Or to what extent did these distortions affect the cast or carved statues of Árpád in public squares, showing the duke who took home? Into these two broad spheres we include the questions prompting the comparison of facts between reality and tradition. The author of the paper deals with the arrival of Magyars in the Carpathian Basin as well as the figure of Princ Árpád. He zeroes in on the course and results of the Battle of Bratislava in 907 (July 4th and 5th) and the subsequent development. He also provides an overview of earlier and modern Hungarian historiography on this issue.
In 907 two important events of the medieval Central European history happened. The monarch of the Hungarians Árpád died and the army of the East Frankish kingdom was defeated at Bratislava on July 4th and 5th. Although both of these events are the chapters of the Hungarian Conquest, there is no direct connection between Árpád’s passing and the battle. At first the data bases are absolutely different: Árpád’s last year was mentioned only by Gesta Hungarorum (The Deeds of the Hungarians) written by the anonymous notary of king Béla III. However, this author did not give an exact date within the year 907. Moreover the memory of the battle of Bratislava had not been saved in Hungarian chronicles, only external sources tell the fact of the fight. My study gives a review on the background of the double actuality of 907. There are several seriously discussed points of the Hungarian Conquest. One of them refers to the introductory events: who was the first Hungarian monarch? Árpád or his father Álmos? The home tradition declares Álmos, on contrary Emperor Constantine VII asserts Árpád to be the first ruler of the Hungarians in their earlier territory called Etelköz. After an almost 250 years old discussion we can be sure that the home memory was right. Álmos established a heathen Hungarian state in Etelköz and Árpád led the people into the Carpathian Basin. There are two opposite opinions in the written sources on the circumstances: some of them regard the immigration as a victorious conquest, some of them tell that it was a runaway after a massive defeat. The decision is in the military history: the Hungarian fighting activity was so strong at the turn of the 10th century that the theory of the runaway can be denied. Many raids and victories are mentioned in the external sources before and after 907, and within this process the battle of Bratislava is an important focusing point. The last part of this paper deals with the development of Árpád’s image. The ancient chronicles do not tell us much about his deeds. The anonymous notary re-interpreted his figure according to the spirit of chivalry. As his Gesta Hungarorum had been discovered and published in 1746, it strongly influenced the historical thinking. His imaginary Árpád suited the awakening national romanticism, therefore a new hero was born in the epic poetry in 1825.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 266-271 © Verbum 2010
JAROSLAV NEMEŠ: „Mystické uvažovanie o najvyššom Bohu“ pápeža Gregora I. / “Mystical Contemplation of the Supreme God” by Pope Gregory I

KEYWORDS: Christianity, Gregory I, Great Pope, Patristics, Mystique
ABSTRACT: Homilies on prophet Ezekiel enjoyed great popularity especially in the Middle Ages because they were written in a simple style and were easy to read. They contained many allegories, mystical passages and were morally instructive. The texts have a spiritual depth and provide the opportunity to reflect on the fullness of human existence. We have selected a short excerpt from the second book, first homily, chapter 17 and 18.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 272-276 © Verbum 2010
„Kulturní cena Karla IV. bude udělována osobnostem, které se zasloužily o porozumění mezi Německem a Českou republikou“. Rozhovor s paní Věrou Blažkovou / „Cultural Charles IV Prize will be Awarded to Individuals who Weighed in on Understanding Between Germany and the Czech Republic“. Interview with Mrs Věra Blažková

ABSTRACT: Věra Blažková is President of the society Kulturverein Aachen – Prag (Culture Society Aachen – Prague). She is dedicated to the development of the relationship between the two coronation cities as well as the development of Czech-German relations. In 2006 she was awarded the prize of the Association of Rhineland the Rhine Thaler (Rheintaler) in the historical Aachen City Hall for her long-time activities. She is an author and co-author of several publications devoted primarily to the history of the city (especially coronation ceremonies) and its mutual relations with Prague. She is our guest in the section Interviews.

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 277-294 © Verbum 2010
Recenzie / Reviews

RICHTER, Karel. Dobyvatel světa. Válečná anabáze Alexandra Velikého. Praha : Epocha, 2010, 425 s. ISBN 978-80-87027-81-3. (Igor Lisový)
FELCMAN, Ondřej - MUSIL, František et al. Dějiny východních Čech v pravěku a středověku (do roku 1526). Praha : Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, 2009, 826 s. ISBN 978-80-7422-003-6. (David Papajík)
RÁBIK, Vladimír (ed.). Monumenta Vaticana Slovaciae. Tomus II. Registra supplicationum ex actis pontificum Romanorum res gestas Slovacas illustrantia. Volumen I. (1342 – 1415). Trnavae; Romae : Institutum historicum Slovacum in Roma apud Universitatem Tyrnaviensem, 2009, 341 s. ISBN 978-80-8082-302-3. (Marek Ďurčo)
KALOUS, Antonín. Matyáš Korvín (1443 – 1290) : uherský a český král. České Budějovice : Veduta, 2009, 480 s. ISBN 978-80-86829-48-7. (Miroslav Huťka)
BITSKEY, István. Petrus Cardinalis Pazmany, Archiepiscopus Strigoniensis. Z maď. orig Pázmány Péter prel. Ladislav Tóth a Alžbeta Hološová. Trnava : Ústav dejín Trnavskej univerzity v Trnave, Trnavská univerzita, 2010, 255 s. ISBN 978-80-8082-352-8. (Martina Bohačiaková)
FIAMOVÁ, Martina - JAKUBČIN, Pavol (eds.). Prenasledovanie cirkví v komunistických štátoch strednej a východnej Európy. Bratislava : Ústav pamäti národa, 2010, 684 s. ISBN 978-80-89335-28-2. (Martin Lupčo)
ČIKEŠ, Radovan. Vzťahy štátu a cirkví na Slovensku. Súčasné usporiadanie a trendy vo vývoji vzťahu štátu a cirkví. Bratislava : Ústav pre vzťahy štátu a cirkví, 2010, 120 s. ISBN 978-80-89096-43-5. (Peter Olexák)
Národ – cirkev – štát. Ed. Tatiana Ivantyšynová. Bratislava : Spoločnosť pre dejiny a kultúru strednej a východnej Európy a Centrum pre európsku politiku v spolupráci s Historickým ústavom SAV, 2007, 266 s. ISBN 978-80-969834-2-1. (Rastislav Molda)

 

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 295-311 © Verbum 2010
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 312-322 © Verbum 2010
Správy, referáty / Brief notices

Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 323-331 © Verbum 2010
Internetové odkazy / Web links

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