- Kategória: Rok 2010
- Uverejnené: piatok, 30. november 2012, 14:08
OBSAH / CONTENTS
Štúdie, články / Studies, Articles:
Jana GROLLOVÁ: Pojetí pýchy v traktátech „O sedmi hřieších hlavních“ Tomáše ze Štítného a Petra Chelčického / The Conception of Pride in the Tracts “On the Seven Deadly Sins” by Thomas of Štítné and Peter Chelčický (pp. 5-23)
Pavel MAREK - Jurij DANILEC: Příspěvek k poznání aktivit arcibiskupa Sawatije na Podkarpatské Rusi v první polovině 20. století / Contribution to the Knowledge of the Activities of Archbishop Savatije in Ruthenia in the First Half of the 20th Century (pp. 24-43)
Diskusie, polemiky / Discussions, Polemics:
Michal SLIVKA: Historiografia spišskej historickej antropológie stredoveku. Reflektovanie stavu a perspektívy bádania / The Historiography of the Spiš Historical Anthropology of the Middle Ages. Reflecting the Research Status and Prospects (pp. 44-100)
Pramene, preklady / Sources, Translations:
Svätý Bernard z Clairvaux a jeho spis „Rozpravy o poznaní ľudskej prirodzenosti“ / St. Bernard from Clairvaux and His Work “Discourse on Knowledge of Human Nature” (pp. 101-122)
Rozhovory / Interviews:
„Nie náhodou bol roku 1883 založený Spišský dejepisný spolok.“ Rozhovor s doc. PhDr. Ivanom Chalupeckým / “It Is No Coincidence That in 1883 the Spiš Historical Society Was Established.” Interview with Doc. PhDr. Ivan Chalupecký (pp. 123-128)
Recenzie / Reviews (pp. 129-152)
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books (pp. 153-159)
Správy, referáty / Brief notices (pp. 160-165)
Internetové odkazy / Web links (pp. 166-168)
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 5-23 © Verbum 2010
JANA GROLLOVÁ: Pojetí pýchy v traktátech „O sedmi hřieších hlavních“ Tomáše ze Štítného a Petra Chelčického / The Conception of Pride in the Tracts “On the Seven Deadly Sins” by Thomas of Štítné and Peter Chelčický
KEYWORDS: Middle Ages, Kingdom of Bohemia, Thomas Štítný of Štítné, Peter Chelčický, 14th and 15th Century
ABSTRACT: The paper compares the conception of the first of the seven deadly sins in two medieval tracts. The both of them were inspired by the biblical text: “In fact, all who want to live religiously in Christ Jesus will be persecuted” (2 Timothy 3:12). However, according to the first tract by Thomas of Štítné, the most important is to stay firmly in the Truth which should be experienced first of all by reading the Bible, the priest’s leadership and self-education. On the other hand, the second author Peter Chelčický finds the answer in the inner spiritual life of a Christian and in the way how he/she behaves in the society.
In the matter of the creation of the doctrine of the seven deadly sins the comparison of the manuscripts reveals the revival of the direct inspiration by the biblical statements and stories. However, at the same time, the argumentation of the tracts of other selected texts refers to secondary, mostly classical sources, from which the doctrine of the fight of virtues against vices derived inspiration. Other sources of inspiration largely influenced the conclusions to which medieval thinkers came, as well as the selection of examples on which they tried to explain the concept of sinfulness to their readers. The gradual simplification of the problems led to the moralization of the matter of human sinfulness. Theoretical considerations for personal meditation were interconnected with their application in everyday piety, especially of the middle classes of medieval society. Ultimately, it was defined as the doctrine of the works of mercy supplemented with the doctrine of the seven deadly sins, and was ubsequently depicted in illustrations and murals.
The tract on human pride – not only as the first of the deadly sins – presents the conceptual core of the explication of human sinfulness both in case of the final chapters of “Řeči besední” [Discussions] by Thomas Štítný of Štítné and in relation to the tract by Peter Chelčický. However, the importance of the topic is already evident in the biblical text.
If we summarize the explications of the first of the seven deadly sins, we come to the conclusion that from the initial common thought: “In fact, all who want to live religiously in Christ Jesus will be persecuted”, the two authors pursue different goals in their following explications. For Thomas Štítný the most important is to stay firmly in the Truth which should be experienced first of all by reading the Bible, the priest’s leadership and self-education. Knowledge and search for the biblical Truth is a base for living in the Truth. Human will, if it stands up against God’s guidance, becomes for itself a source of torture – persecution. Lust, which opposes the Truth, will always suffer under this Truth. On the other hand, if one, together with the Truth, suffers from persecution, he/she will find peace and consolation of eternal joy in the honour and praise of God.
Chelčický finds the answer in the inner spiritual life of a Christian and in the way how he/she behaves in the society. Chelčický builds this behaviour on the assumption that all Christians are fully equal before God. Diligent efforts and work on the spiritual path to salvation is a basic duty of a Christian. If a Christian slackens in this work and defence, he/she will defile his/her conscience and fall into sin. Man achieves freedom by resisting the worldly temptation and by obedience to God. Chelčický in dealing with pride unlike Thomas Štítný emphasizes the idea that the very existence of sin in man does not relieve him of responsibility for his decisions. The presence of pride in the human body does not a priori condemn the human acting, because man was given free will. Chelčický sees the beginning of spiritual struggle in an individual. Man should not align himself with the general opinion. Chelčický asks Christians to have the courage to go against the general opinion and attitude of the majority. In no case they should descend to spreading slander and lies in order to appeal to others or because of hypocrisy.
In the concept of the themes of the deadly sins in Thomas Štítný and Peter Chelčický is clearly proved a shift in consciousness, which in the course of increasing individual piety is evident in the midst of the late 14th and early 15th century. While Štítný defends the possibility of parents to guide their children in the matters of faith and only looks for the ways how to present theological concepts to children and the general public, and therefore often tends to advocate educational influence of family and religious environment, Chelčický already acts quite confidently, as one of the believers. He represents a taken stand and comments on life within his Church community. He shifts the perception of Christian’s life to the whole community and appeals to the social impact of an individual’s sinfulness. In any event, in his conception there is not a concept of collective guilt. He points to a chain reaction that an individual’s sin can cause. On this basis, in his later works, Chelčický created the concept of social discipline, in which he definitly diverges from his teacher.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 24-43 © Verbum 2010
PAVEL MAREK - JURIJ DANILEC: Příspěvek k poznání aktivit arcibiskupa Sawatije na Podkarpatské Rusi v první polovině 20. století / Contribution to the Knowledge of the Activities of Archbishop Savatije in Ruthenia in the First Half of the 20th Century
KEYWORDS: Orthodox Church, Ruthenia, Czechoslovakia, Patriarch Savatije, 20th Century
ABSTRACT: Among the problems of historiography there is also the problem of jurisdictional affiliation of the Orthodox Christians in the territory of Czechoslovakia in the interwar period, eventually the dispute between the Serbian and Constantinopolitan Orthodox Church in the matter of the administration of the Orthodox community in the above mentioned territory. Up to now both Orthodox Christians themselves and historiography have coped with this problem with difficulties and they have tried to solve it mostly by one-sided tilt to one side or the other, and, accordingly, they have interpreted and evaluated the activities of both Orthodox factions symbolized by the personalities of bishops Gorazd and Savatije. In this context comes to the fore the urgent requirement for deeper knowledge of life and work of Archimandrite Savatije (civil name Antonín Vrabec), the central figure of the beginnings of the Orthodox Church after the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918.
The Orthodox community in the territory of the Czech lands and Slovakia does not have deeper historical traditions in the meaning of the passage of this Church through the centuries. From a quantitative point of view it has never been a large church community. It has always been rather a narrow group comprising some tens of thousands of believers. Very important for the vitality of Orthodoxy in that area were foreign influences, whether we mean the involvement of the Orthodox Christians coming from other countries into religious life, the post-war return of Czechs of Volyně to their homeland, the transition of former Uniats in Slovakia in 1950’s after the ban on Greek Catholic Church, or significant interference from Constantinopolitan, Serbian and Russian Orthodox Church. Here it is necessary to see one of the reasons that there is rather a lack of high-quality historical essays reflecting the history of the Orthodox Christians in Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia (in the years of the First Czechoslovak Republic).
The paper aims to evoke the character and activities of the Prague archbishop of the Orthodox Church Savatije. He was a founder of Czech Orthodoxy and through his activities he greatly influenced the development of the Orthodox Church in the territory of the First Czechoslovak Republic. He was brought up in Russian Orthodoxy operating in Volyně and returned back to his homeland after the establishment of the independent Czechoslovak state and helped to transform the fraternal association of believers to religious community. He won the jurisdictional assistance of the Constantinopolitan Ecumenical Patriarchate, on the other hand, however, he encountered obstacles arising from the jurisdictional demands of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the territory of Czechoslovakia. With the assistance of the state authorities supporting the Serbian Church he was ousted from the Czech lands in the mid1920’s. Therefore he moved the base of his pastoral activities to Subcarpathian Ruthenia. The paper deals with his efforts in Subcarpathian Ruthenia up to the turn of 1920’s and 1930’s, and then in the period after 1938. At the turn of 1930’s and 1940’s he made efforts to establish Ukrainian and later Hungarian Orthodox Church under the jurisdiction of the Constantinopolitan Patriarchate. However, in the context of the political development in that time Hungary and Germany these efforts have to be qualified as a controversial step. Savatije finally got into the clutches of the German Gestapo and spent the war in a Nazi concentration camp. After 1945, in fact, he did not interfere in the development of the Orthodox Church in the territory of Czechoslovakia, nor the Soviet (Ukrainian) Transcarpathia any more.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 44-100 © Verbum 2010
MICHAL SLIVKA: Historiografia spišskej historickej antropológie stredoveku. Reflektovanie stavu a perspektívy bádania / The Historiography of the Spiš Historical Anthropology of the Middle Ages. Reflecting the Research Status and Prospects
KEYWORDS: Anthropology, Middle Ages, Historiography, Slovakia, Region of Spiš (Scepus), Material Culture
ABSTRACT: The author takes notice in his study of everything relating to the Middle Ages in the region of Spiš (Slovakia). He analyzes the history of archaeological research and the beginnings of historical literature and confronts them with the current modern research. As for the preservation of the cultural heritage and natural-landscape attractions, Spiš is a special and admired region, which has been well-known for the special interest in its history since the period of humanism. This spontaneous conception of its own history has a long tradition in Spiš and, without exaggeration, this region belongs to the group of relatively well explored in the wider Central European area (off course not only thanks to the Spiš inhabitants).
As regards Spiš, this region is, not only on the basis of the preservation of the cultural heritage and natural-landscape attractions, a special and admired region, which has been well-known for the special interest in its history since the period of humanism (i.e. since the 16th century). This spontaneous conception of its own history has a long tradition in Spiš and, without exaggeration, this region belongs to the group of relatively well explored regions in the wider Central European area (off course not only thanks to the Spiš inhabitants). Spontaneous awareness is vivid through the memories in the collective memory of the current generation, which is supported by the activities of the Spiš Historical Society [Spišský dejepisný spolok] (established in 1883) and its latest publishing activities.
This paper has set the objective of both reviewing the Spiš rich historiography in certain confrontation with neighbouring historical knowledge, and introducing several themes which the further research should follow. It is not necessary to stress the “scientism” and “objectivity”. What is important is a pragmatic approach to the source base, as it was left to us in the message of the works of earlier Spiš historians.
Using Gospel words we would say that “The harvest is plentiful, but the workers are few”, or as Joel in the Old Testament says: “Rush forth with the sickle, for the harvest is ripe!” (3:13). I paraphrase this quotation that we rush forth with the pen, because this is the trend of the present historical science in unifying Europe. However, let us be aware that our ratio recta is just and will be just an entrance hall of the unknown world, particularly of the “spirit world”, in which our ancestors also lived and gave sense to our history.
A substantial transformation of the society occurs under the influence of the establishment of Christianity. The issues connected with the beginnings have always belonged to the most discussed problems of history. In the review of the existing research focused on the religious centre of Spiš, the theoretical deliberations on two time options for institutionalizing Christianity in Spiš have crystallized. The first option puts it in the 9th or 10th century, the second in the 11th – 12th century. For the earlier stage we are still missing any evidence and so all the propositions (especially by Jozef Kútnik) remain only in the imaginary plane.
Critical processing of the historical development of patronitia in Spiš (but not only in this region) remains the challenge for the next period. It is also necessary to pay attention to the spiritual patrons of the various fraternities (e.g. the patrons of the Fraternity of the Spiš pastors were the Holy Spirit and Virgin Mary), but also guild associations (e.g. the blacksmith guild in Levoča had its own altar of the Holy Cross in the Church of St. James). One should also examine the bells (besides the name of the saint, donator or bell master on the ring of the bell there are also depicted the figures of saints or coats of arms, Bible quotations or fragments of prayers) and the baptismal fonts (on the cast fonts from the 15th century a patron of the church is depicted).
Shrines themselves as works of art had their historical development, and thus in the post-reformation period the techniques of the textile art hem began to be used, as one can see on all three head relics from Spišská Kapitula. It was in the Middle Ages that the relic was replaced by the picture or sculpture in the spirit of St. Thomas theology, and so, said with the words of Hans Belting, the well-known theorist and art historian, “a saint is presented in the picture work by his body”.
Nowadays, thanks to the expansion of archaeological research in the Spiš region, we have more realistic picture of the early medieval, i.e. pre-Hungarian period. This “archaic” era has been most markedly presented by the Čingov residential agglomeration since as early as the turn of the 8th and 9th century. The first more or less incidental findings published by Belo Polla and then Vojtech Budinský-Krička already indicated the importance of this Slavic centre.
The issue of pilgrimage is closely related to the theme of travel and reconstruction of the road network, although the pilgrims used direct routes (i.e. as short as possible to avoid the contact with settlements), often pathways through the mountain passes that had to be guarded. Reconstruction of the road network on the basis of documentary data still remains only a trace of the real map of routes. Their identification in the field should be refined by implementing modern historical-geographical and archaeological methods using aerial photos.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 101-122 © Verbum 2010
Svätý Bernard z Clairvaux a jeho spis „Rozpravy o poznaní ľudskej prirodzenosti“ / St. Bernard from Clairvaux and His Work “Discourse on Knowledge of Human Nature”
KEYWORDS: Middle Ages, St. Bernard from Clairvaux, Monastic Life, Mystique, 11th and 12th Century
ABSTRACT: He was a thinker, reformer of monastic life, renowned preacher, spiritual writer, a passionate defender of church orthodoxy and unity and an advisor of bishops and popes. He was interested in social events and wrote numerous theological and monastic works. The Tracts are written in the spirit of the mystical monastic piety. They were drawn up in simple medieval Latin. The language used by Bernard reflects his level of education and erudition. In the Tracts he used a number of theological terms and expressions. He drafted the work in a simplified Latin grammatical structure of sentences without using the classic sequence of times. His Latin is not a dead language. Although it does not resemble the speech of Cicero, it is still extremely lively and sharp, even jocular, and always individually melodic.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 123-128 © Verbum 2010
„Nie náhodou bol roku 1883 založený Spišský dejepisný spolok“. Rozhovor s doc. PhDr. Ivanom Chalupeckým / “It Is No Coincidence That in 1883 the Spiš Historical Society Was Established.” Interview with Doc. PhDr. Ivan Chalupecký
ABSTRACT: Doc. PhDr. Ivan Chalupecký, a distinguished Slovak archivist and historian, specialist and expert on the history of Spiš Region, long-time chair of the Spiš Historical Society, is our first guest in the section Interviews.
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 129-152 © Verbum 2010
Recenzie / Reviews
BEDNAŘÍKOVÁ, Jarmila. Frankové a Evropa. Praha : Vyšehrad, 2009, 335 s. ISBN 978-80-7021-942-3. (Marek Babic)
SKALSKÁ, Monika. Jelšava a Jelšavské panstvo v stredoveku. K osídleniu severného Gemera. Martin : Matica slovenská, 2009, 331 s. ISBN 978-80-7090-947-8. (Erika Palágyiová)
Dějiny Olomouce 1+2. Olomouc : Statutární město Olomouc a Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2009. 1. díl - 631 s., 2. díl – 535 s. ISBN 978-80-244-2370-8. (David Papajík)
KUŠNIRÁKOVÁ, Ingrid. Piae fundationes. Zbožné fundácie a ich význam pre rozvoj uhorskej spoločnosti v ranom novoveku. Bratislava : Spoločnosť Pro Historia, 2009, 214 s. ISBN 978-80-970060-5-1. (Jaroslav Nemeš)
LETZ, Róbert - MULÍK, Peter et al. Pohľady na osobnosť Andreja Hlinku. Martin : Matica slovenská, 2009, 277 s. ISBN 978-80-7090-951-5. (Zdislava Dvorščáková)
SYRNÝ, Marek et al. Kolaborácia a odboj na Slovensku a v krajinách nemeckej sféry vplyvu v rokoch 1939 – 1945. Banská Bystrica : Múzeum Slovenského národného povstania, 2009, 468 s. ISBN 978-80-970238-2-9. (Martin Búri)
DLUGOŠ, František. Štefan Klubert. Kňaz, vzdelanec a zveľaďovateľ kultúrneho bohatstva. Levoča : MTM – Milan Tejbus, 2009, 311 s. ISBN 978-80-89187-35-5. (Matúš Veliký)
VRTEL, Ladislav. Heraldická terminológia. Martin : Slovenská genealogickoheraldická spoločnosť, 2009, 460 s. ISBN 978-80-970196-0-0. (Marek Ďurčo)
Studia Historica Tyrnaviensia VIII. Eds. Marta Dobrotková et al. Trnava : Katedra histórie Filozofickej fakulty, Trnavská univerzita v Trnave, 2009, 195 s. ISBN 978-80-8082-284-2. (Rastislav Molda)
Historický zborník 19, č. 2/2009. Ed. Ján Bobák. Martin : Matica Slovenská, 2009, 267 s. ISSN 1335-8723. (Mariana Gordiaková)
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 153-159 © Verbum 2010
Anotácie, nové knihy / Annotations, New books
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 160-165 © Verbum 2010
Správy, referáty / Brief notices
Kultúrne dejiny / Cultural History, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 166-168 © Verbum 2010
Internetové odkazy / Web links